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Exception classes raised by urllib. The base exception class is URLError, which inherits from IOError. It doesn't define any behavior of its own, but is the base class for all exceptions defined in this package. HTTPError is an exception class that is also a valid HTTP response instance. It behaves this way because HTTP protocol errors are valid responses, with a status code, headers, and a body. In some contexts, an application may want to handle an exception like a regular response.