Back to index

python3.2  3.2.2
Classes | Functions | Variables
_threading_local Namespace Reference

Classes

class  _localimpl
class  local

Functions

def _patch

Variables

list __all__ = ["local"]

Detailed Description

Thread-local objects.

(Note that this module provides a Python version of the threading.local
 class.  Depending on the version of Python you're using, there may be a
 faster one available.  You should always import the `local` class from
 `threading`.)

Thread-local objects support the management of thread-local data.
If you have data that you want to be local to a thread, simply create
a thread-local object and use its attributes:

  >>> mydata = local()
  >>> mydata.number = 42
  >>> mydata.number
  42

You can also access the local-object's dictionary:

  >>> mydata.__dict__
  {'number': 42}
  >>> mydata.__dict__.setdefault('widgets', [])
  []
  >>> mydata.widgets
  []

What's important about thread-local objects is that their data are
local to a thread. If we access the data in a different thread:

  >>> log = []
  >>> def f():
  ...     items = sorted(mydata.__dict__.items())
  ...     log.append(items)
  ...     mydata.number = 11
  ...     log.append(mydata.number)

  >>> import threading
  >>> thread = threading.Thread(target=f)
  >>> thread.start()
  >>> thread.join()
  >>> log
  [[], 11]

we get different data.  Furthermore, changes made in the other thread
don't affect data seen in this thread:

  >>> mydata.number
  42

Of course, values you get from a local object, including a __dict__
attribute, are for whatever thread was current at the time the
attribute was read.  For that reason, you generally don't want to save
these values across threads, as they apply only to the thread they
came from.

You can create custom local objects by subclassing the local class:

  >>> class MyLocal(local):
  ...     number = 2
  ...     initialized = False
  ...     def __init__(self, **kw):
  ...         if self.initialized:
  ...             raise SystemError('__init__ called too many times')
  ...         self.initialized = True
  ...         self.__dict__.update(kw)
  ...     def squared(self):
  ...         return self.number ** 2

This can be useful to support default values, methods and
initialization.  Note that if you define an __init__ method, it will be
called each time the local object is used in a separate thread.  This
is necessary to initialize each thread's dictionary.

Now if we create a local object:

  >>> mydata = MyLocal(color='red')

Now we have a default number:

  >>> mydata.number
  2

an initial color:

  >>> mydata.color
  'red'
  >>> del mydata.color

And a method that operates on the data:

  >>> mydata.squared()
  4

As before, we can access the data in a separate thread:

  >>> log = []
  >>> thread = threading.Thread(target=f)
  >>> thread.start()
  >>> thread.join()
  >>> log
  [[('color', 'red'), ('initialized', True)], 11]

without affecting this thread's data:

  >>> mydata.number
  2
  >>> mydata.color
  Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
  AttributeError: 'MyLocal' object has no attribute 'color'

Note that subclasses can define slots, but they are not thread
local. They are shared across threads:

  >>> class MyLocal(local):
  ...     __slots__ = 'number'

  >>> mydata = MyLocal()
  >>> mydata.number = 42
  >>> mydata.color = 'red'

So, the separate thread:

  >>> thread = threading.Thread(target=f)
  >>> thread.start()
  >>> thread.join()

affects what we see:

  >>> mydata.number
  11

>>> del mydata

Function Documentation

def _threading_local._patch (   self) [private]

Definition at line 195 of file _threading_local.py.

00195 
00196 def _patch(self):
00197     impl = object.__getattribute__(self, '_local__impl')
00198     try:
00199         dct = impl.get_dict()
00200     except KeyError:
00201         dct = impl.create_dict()
00202         args, kw = impl.localargs
00203         self.__init__(*args, **kw)
00204     with impl.locallock:
00205         object.__setattr__(self, '__dict__', dct)
00206         yield
00207 

Here is the caller graph for this function:


Variable Documentation

list _threading_local.__all__ = ["local"]

Definition at line 138 of file _threading_local.py.