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vdbeInt.h File Reference
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Classes

struct  Cursor
struct  Mem
struct  VdbeFunc
struct  VdbeFunc::AuxData
struct  sqlite3_context
struct  Set
struct  FifoPage
struct  Fifo
struct  Context
struct  Vdbe

Defines

#define keyToInt(X)   (X)
#define intToKey(X)   (X)
#define NBFS   32
#define CACHE_STALE   0
#define MEM_Null   0x0001 /* Value is NULL */
#define MEM_Str   0x0002 /* Value is a string */
#define MEM_Int   0x0004 /* Value is an integer */
#define MEM_Real   0x0008 /* Value is a real number */
#define MEM_Blob   0x0010 /* Value is a BLOB */
#define MEM_Term   0x0020 /* String rep is nul terminated */
#define MEM_Dyn   0x0040 /* Need to call sqliteFree() on Mem.z */
#define MEM_Static   0x0080 /* Mem.z points to a static string */
#define MEM_Ephem   0x0100 /* Mem.z points to an ephemeral string */
#define MEM_Short   0x0200 /* Mem.z points to Mem.zShort */
#define MEM_Agg   0x0400 /* Mem.z points to an agg function context */
#define VDBE_MAGIC_INIT   0x26bceaa5 /* Building a VDBE program */
#define VDBE_MAGIC_RUN   0xbdf20da3 /* VDBE is ready to execute */
#define VDBE_MAGIC_HALT   0x519c2973 /* VDBE has completed execution */
#define VDBE_MAGIC_DEAD   0xb606c3c8 /* The VDBE has been deallocated */

Typedefs

typedef struct VdbeOp
typedef unsigned char Bool
typedef struct Cursor
typedef struct Mem
typedef struct VdbeFunc
typedef struct Set
typedef struct FifoPage
typedef struct Fifo
typedef struct Context

Functions

void sqlite3VdbeFreeCursor (Cursor *)
void sqliteVdbePopStack (Vdbe *, int)
int sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto (Cursor *)
int sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen (u32)
u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialType (Mem *, int)
int sqlite3VdbeSerialPut (unsigned char *, Mem *, int)
int sqlite3VdbeSerialGet (const unsigned char *, u32, Mem *)
void sqlite3VdbeDeleteAuxData (VdbeFunc *, int)
int sqlite2BtreeKeyCompare (BtCursor *, const void *, int, int, int *)
int sqlite3VdbeIdxKeyCompare (Cursor *, int, const unsigned char *, int *)
int sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid (BtCursor *, i64 *)
int sqlite3MemCompare (const Mem *, const Mem *, const CollSeq *)
int sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare (void *, int, const void *, int, const void *)
int sqlite3VdbeIdxRowidLen (const u8 *)
int sqlite3VdbeExec (Vdbe *)
int sqlite3VdbeList (Vdbe *)
int sqlite3VdbeHalt (Vdbe *)
int sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding (Mem *, int)
int sqlite3VdbeMemCopy (Mem *, const Mem *)
void sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy (Mem *, const Mem *, int)
int sqlite3VdbeMemMove (Mem *, Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemNulTerminate (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr (Mem *, const char *, int, u8, void(*)(void *))
void sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64 (Mem *, i64)
void sqlite3VdbeMemSetDouble (Mem *, double)
void sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemDynamicify (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemStringify (Mem *, int)
i64 sqlite3VdbeIntValue (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify (Mem *)
double sqlite3VdbeRealValue (Mem *)
void sqlite3VdbeIntegerAffinity (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemRealify (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemNumerify (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree (BtCursor *, int, int, int, Mem *)
void sqlite3VdbeMemRelease (Mem *p)
int sqlite3VdbeMemFinalize (Mem *, FuncDef *)
void sqlite3VdbeMemSanity (Mem *)
int sqlite3VdbeOpcodeNoPush (u8)
int sqlite3VdbeMemTranslate (Mem *, u8)
void sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint (Mem *pMem, char *zBuf)
int sqlite3VdbeMemHandleBom (Mem *pMem)
void sqlite3VdbeFifoInit (Fifo *)
int sqlite3VdbeFifoPush (Fifo *, i64)
int sqlite3VdbeFifoPop (Fifo *, i64 *)
void sqlite3VdbeFifoClear (Fifo *)

Variables

char * sqlite3OpcodeNames []

Class Documentation

struct Cursor

Definition at line 61 of file vdbeInt.h.

Collaboration diagram for Cursor:
Class Members
u32 * aOffset
u8 * aRow
Bool atFirst
u32 * aType
u8 bogusIncrKey
int cacheStatus
Bool deferredMoveto
int iDb
i64 iKey
Bool isIndex
Bool isTable
i64 lastRowid
i64 movetoTarget
int nData
i64 nextRowid
Bool nextRowidValid
int nField
Bool nullRow
int payloadSize
Btree * pBt
BtCursor * pCursor
char * pData
u8 * pIncrKey
KeyInfo * pKeyInfo
Bool pseudoTable
Bool rowidIsValid
i64 seqCount
Bool useRandomRowid
Bool zeroed
struct VdbeFunc

Definition at line 179 of file vdbeInt.h.

Collaboration diagram for VdbeFunc:
Class Members
struct AuxData apAux
int nAux
FuncDef * pFunc
struct sqlite3_context

Definition at line 202 of file vdbeInt.h.

Collaboration diagram for sqlite3_context:
Class Members
u8 isError
CollSeq * pColl
FuncDef * pFunc
Mem * pMem
VdbeFunc * pVdbeFunc
Mem s
struct Set

Definition at line 218 of file vdbeInt.h.

Collaboration diagram for Set:
Class Members
Hash hash
HashElem * prev
struct FifoPage

Definition at line 228 of file vdbeInt.h.

Collaboration diagram for FifoPage:
Class Members
i64 aSlot
int iRead
int iWrite
int nSlot
FifoPage * pNext
struct Fifo

Definition at line 243 of file vdbeInt.h.

Collaboration diagram for Fifo:
Class Members
int nEntry
FifoPage * pFirst
FifoPage * pLast
struct Context

Definition at line 47 of file md5.c.

Collaboration diagram for Context:
Class Members
uint32 bits
uint32 buf
PRCondVar * cv
PRIntn have
unsigned char in
i64 lastRowid
PRLock * ml
int nChange
Fifo sFifo
PRIntn want
struct Vdbe

Definition at line 272 of file vdbeInt.h.

Collaboration diagram for Vdbe:
Class Members
u8 aborted
Mem * aColName
int * aLabel
Mem * aMem
Op * aOp
Mem ** apArg
Cursor ** apCsr
Mem * aStack
Mem * aVar
char ** azResColumn
char ** azVar
int cacheCtr
u8 changeCntOn
Context * contextStack
int contextStackDepth
int contextStackTop
sqlite3 * db
int errorAction
u8 expired
u8 explain
int inTempTrans
int magic
u8 minWriteFileFormat
int nCallback
int nChange
int nCursor
int nLabel
int nLabelAlloc
int nMem
int nOp
int nOpAlloc
int nResColumn
int nVar
int okVar
int pc
Vdbe * pNext
int popStack
Vdbe * pPrev
Mem * pTos
int rc
u8 resOnStack
int returnDepth
int returnStack
Fifo sFifo
i64 startTime
FILE * trace
unsigned uniqueCnt
char * zErrMsg

Define Documentation

Definition at line 110 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define intToKey (   X)    (X)

Definition at line 24 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define keyToInt (   X)    (X)

Definition at line 23 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Agg   0x0400 /* Mem.z points to an agg function context */

Definition at line 167 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Blob   0x0010 /* Value is a BLOB */

Definition at line 155 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Dyn   0x0040 /* Need to call sqliteFree() on Mem.z */

Definition at line 163 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Ephem   0x0100 /* Mem.z points to an ephemeral string */

Definition at line 165 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Int   0x0004 /* Value is an integer */

Definition at line 153 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Null   0x0001 /* Value is NULL */

Definition at line 151 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Real   0x0008 /* Value is a real number */

Definition at line 154 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Short   0x0200 /* Mem.z points to Mem.zShort */

Definition at line 166 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Static   0x0080 /* Mem.z points to a static string */

Definition at line 164 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Str   0x0002 /* Value is a string */

Definition at line 152 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define MEM_Term   0x0020 /* String rep is nul terminated */

Definition at line 162 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define NBFS   32

Definition at line 105 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define VDBE_MAGIC_DEAD   0xb606c3c8 /* The VDBE has been deallocated */

Definition at line 332 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define VDBE_MAGIC_HALT   0x519c2973 /* VDBE has completed execution */

Definition at line 331 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define VDBE_MAGIC_INIT   0x26bceaa5 /* Building a VDBE program */

Definition at line 329 of file vdbeInt.h.

#define VDBE_MAGIC_RUN   0xbdf20da3 /* VDBE is ready to execute */

Definition at line 330 of file vdbeInt.h.


Typedef Documentation

typedef unsigned char Bool

Definition at line 44 of file vdbeInt.h.

typedef struct Context

Definition at line 258 of file vdbeInt.h.

typedef struct Cursor

Definition at line 98 of file vdbeInt.h.

typedef struct Fifo

Definition at line 242 of file vdbeInt.h.

typedef struct FifoPage

Definition at line 227 of file vdbeInt.h.

typedef struct Mem

Definition at line 134 of file vdbeInt.h.

typedef struct Set

Definition at line 217 of file vdbeInt.h.

typedef struct VdbeFunc

Definition at line 187 of file vdbeInt.h.

typedef struct VdbeOp

Definition at line 39 of file vdbeInt.h.


Function Documentation

int sqlite2BtreeKeyCompare ( BtCursor ,
const void ,
int  ,
int  ,
int  
)
int sqlite3MemCompare ( const Mem ,
const Mem ,
const CollSeq  
)

Definition at line 524 of file vdbemem.c.

                                                                               {
  int rc;
  int f1, f2;
  int combined_flags;

  /* Interchange pMem1 and pMem2 if the collating sequence specifies
  ** DESC order.
  */
  f1 = pMem1->flags;
  f2 = pMem2->flags;
  combined_flags = f1|f2;
 
  /* If one value is NULL, it is less than the other. If both values
  ** are NULL, return 0.
  */
  if( combined_flags&MEM_Null ){
    return (f2&MEM_Null) - (f1&MEM_Null);
  }

  /* If one value is a number and the other is not, the number is less.
  ** If both are numbers, compare as reals if one is a real, or as integers
  ** if both values are integers.
  */
  if( combined_flags&(MEM_Int|MEM_Real) ){
    if( !(f1&(MEM_Int|MEM_Real)) ){
      return 1;
    }
    if( !(f2&(MEM_Int|MEM_Real)) ){
      return -1;
    }
    if( (f1 & f2 & MEM_Int)==0 ){
      double r1, r2;
      if( (f1&MEM_Real)==0 ){
        r1 = pMem1->i;
      }else{
        r1 = pMem1->r;
      }
      if( (f2&MEM_Real)==0 ){
        r2 = pMem2->i;
      }else{
        r2 = pMem2->r;
      }
      if( r1<r2 ) return -1;
      if( r1>r2 ) return 1;
      return 0;
    }else{
      assert( f1&MEM_Int );
      assert( f2&MEM_Int );
      if( pMem1->i < pMem2->i ) return -1;
      if( pMem1->i > pMem2->i ) return 1;
      return 0;
    }
  }

  /* If one value is a string and the other is a blob, the string is less.
  ** If both are strings, compare using the collating functions.
  */
  if( combined_flags&MEM_Str ){
    if( (f1 & MEM_Str)==0 ){
      return 1;
    }
    if( (f2 & MEM_Str)==0 ){
      return -1;
    }

    assert( pMem1->enc==pMem2->enc );
    assert( pMem1->enc==SQLITE_UTF8 || 
            pMem1->enc==SQLITE_UTF16LE || pMem1->enc==SQLITE_UTF16BE );

    /* The collation sequence must be defined at this point, even if
    ** the user deletes the collation sequence after the vdbe program is
    ** compiled (this was not always the case).
    */
    assert( !pColl || pColl->xCmp );

    if( pColl ){
      if( pMem1->enc==pColl->enc ){
        /* The strings are already in the correct encoding.  Call the
        ** comparison function directly */
        return pColl->xCmp(pColl->pUser,pMem1->n,pMem1->z,pMem2->n,pMem2->z);
      }else{
        u8 origEnc = pMem1->enc;
        const void *v1, *v2;
        int n1, n2;
        /* Convert the strings into the encoding that the comparison
        ** function expects */
        v1 = sqlite3ValueText((sqlite3_value*)pMem1, pColl->enc);
        n1 = v1==0 ? 0 : pMem1->n;
        assert( n1==sqlite3ValueBytes((sqlite3_value*)pMem1, pColl->enc) );
        v2 = sqlite3ValueText((sqlite3_value*)pMem2, pColl->enc);
        n2 = v2==0 ? 0 : pMem2->n;
        assert( n2==sqlite3ValueBytes((sqlite3_value*)pMem2, pColl->enc) );
        /* Do the comparison */
        rc = pColl->xCmp(pColl->pUser, n1, v1, n2, v2);
        /* Convert the strings back into the database encoding */
        sqlite3ValueText((sqlite3_value*)pMem1, origEnc);
        sqlite3ValueText((sqlite3_value*)pMem2, origEnc);
        return rc;
      }
    }
    /* If a NULL pointer was passed as the collate function, fall through
    ** to the blob case and use memcmp().  */
  }
 
  /* Both values must be blobs.  Compare using memcmp().  */
  rc = memcmp(pMem1->z, pMem2->z, (pMem1->n>pMem2->n)?pMem2->n:pMem1->n);
  if( rc==0 ){
    rc = pMem1->n - pMem2->n;
  }
  return rc;
}

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Definition at line 36 of file vdbemem.c.

                                                        {
  int rc;
  if( !(pMem->flags&MEM_Str) || pMem->enc==desiredEnc ){
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
  return SQLITE_ERROR;
#else


  /* MemTranslate() may return SQLITE_OK or SQLITE_NOMEM. If NOMEM is returned,
  ** then the encoding of the value may not have changed.
  */
  rc = sqlite3VdbeMemTranslate(pMem, desiredEnc);
  assert(rc==SQLITE_OK    || rc==SQLITE_NOMEM);
  assert(rc==SQLITE_OK    || pMem->enc!=desiredEnc);
  assert(rc==SQLITE_NOMEM || pMem->enc==desiredEnc);

  if( rc==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
/*
    sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
    pMem->flags = MEM_Null;
    pMem->z = 0;
*/
  }
  return rc;
#endif
}

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Definition at line 1512 of file vdbeaux.c.

                                      {
  if( p->deferredMoveto ){
    int res, rc;
    extern int sqlite3_search_count;
    assert( p->isTable );
    if( p->isTable ){
      rc = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(p->pCursor, 0, p->movetoTarget, &res);
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(p->pCursor,(char*)&p->movetoTarget,
                              sizeof(i64),&res);
    }
    if( rc ) return rc;
    *p->pIncrKey = 0;
    p->lastRowid = keyToInt(p->movetoTarget);
    p->rowidIsValid = res==0;
    if( res<0 ){
      rc = sqlite3BtreeNext(p->pCursor, &res);
      if( rc ) return rc;
    }
    sqlite3_search_count++;
    p->deferredMoveto = 0;
    p->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 1462 of file vdbeaux.c.

                                                            {
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<pVdbeFunc->nAux; i++){
    struct AuxData *pAux = &pVdbeFunc->apAux[i];
    if( (i>31 || !(mask&(1<<i))) && pAux->pAux ){
      if( pAux->xDelete ){
        pAux->xDelete(pAux->pAux);
      }
      pAux->pAux = 0;
    }
  }
}

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Definition at line 413 of file vdbe.c.

 {
  int pc;                    /* The program counter */
  Op *pOp;                   /* Current operation */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;        /* Value to return */
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;       /* The database */
  u8 encoding = ENC(db);     /* The database encoding */
  Mem *pTos;                 /* Top entry in the operand stack */
#ifdef VDBE_PROFILE
  unsigned long long start;  /* CPU clock count at start of opcode */
  int origPc;                /* Program counter at start of opcode */
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  int nProgressOps = 0;      /* Opcodes executed since progress callback. */
#endif
#ifndef NDEBUG
  Mem *pStackLimit;
#endif

  if( p->magic!=VDBE_MAGIC_RUN ) return SQLITE_MISUSE;
  assert( db->magic==SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY );
  pTos = p->pTos;
  if( p->rc==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
    /* This happens if a malloc() inside a call to sqlite3_column_text() or
    ** sqlite3_column_text16() failed.  */
    goto no_mem;
  }
  assert( p->rc==SQLITE_OK || p->rc==SQLITE_BUSY );
  p->rc = SQLITE_OK;
  assert( p->explain==0 );
  if( p->popStack ){
    popStack(&pTos, p->popStack);
    p->popStack = 0;
  }
  p->resOnStack = 0;
  db->busyHandler.nBusy = 0;
  CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT;
  for(pc=p->pc; rc==SQLITE_OK; pc++){
    assert( pc>=0 && pc<p->nOp );
    assert( pTos<=&p->aStack[pc] );
    if( sqlite3MallocFailed() ) goto no_mem;
#ifdef VDBE_PROFILE
    origPc = pc;
    start = hwtime();
#endif
    pOp = &p->aOp[pc];

    /* Only allow tracing if SQLITE_DEBUG is defined.
    */
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
    if( p->trace ){
      if( pc==0 ){
        printf("VDBE Execution Trace:\n");
        sqlite3VdbePrintSql(p);
      }
      sqlite3VdbePrintOp(p->trace, pc, pOp);
    }
    if( p->trace==0 && pc==0 && sqlite3OsFileExists("vdbe_sqltrace") ){
      sqlite3VdbePrintSql(p);
    }
#endif
      

    /* Check to see if we need to simulate an interrupt.  This only happens
    ** if we have a special test build.
    */
#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
    if( sqlite3_interrupt_count>0 ){
      sqlite3_interrupt_count--;
      if( sqlite3_interrupt_count==0 ){
        sqlite3_interrupt(db);
      }
    }
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
    /* Call the progress callback if it is configured and the required number
    ** of VDBE ops have been executed (either since this invocation of
    ** sqlite3VdbeExec() or since last time the progress callback was called).
    ** If the progress callback returns non-zero, exit the virtual machine with
    ** a return code SQLITE_ABORT.
    */
    if( db->xProgress ){
      if( db->nProgressOps==nProgressOps ){
        if( db->xProgress(db->pProgressArg)!=0 ){
          rc = SQLITE_ABORT;
          continue; /* skip to the next iteration of the for loop */
        }
        nProgressOps = 0;
      }
      nProgressOps++;
    }
#endif

#ifndef NDEBUG
    /* This is to check that the return value of static function
    ** opcodeNoPush() (see vdbeaux.c) returns values that match the
    ** implementation of the virtual machine in this file. If
    ** opcodeNoPush() returns non-zero, then the stack is guarenteed
    ** not to grow when the opcode is executed. If it returns zero, then
    ** the stack may grow by at most 1.
    **
    ** The global wrapper function sqlite3VdbeOpcodeUsesStack() is not 
    ** available if NDEBUG is defined at build time.
    */ 
    pStackLimit = pTos;
    if( !sqlite3VdbeOpcodeNoPush(pOp->opcode) ){
      pStackLimit++;
    }
#endif

    switch( pOp->opcode ){

/*****************************************************************************
** What follows is a massive switch statement where each case implements a
** separate instruction in the virtual machine.  If we follow the usual
** indentation conventions, each case should be indented by 6 spaces.  But
** that is a lot of wasted space on the left margin.  So the code within
** the switch statement will break with convention and be flush-left. Another
** big comment (similar to this one) will mark the point in the code where
** we transition back to normal indentation.
**
** The formatting of each case is important.  The makefile for SQLite
** generates two C files "opcodes.h" and "opcodes.c" by scanning this
** file looking for lines that begin with "case OP_".  The opcodes.h files
** will be filled with #defines that give unique integer values to each
** opcode and the opcodes.c file is filled with an array of strings where
** each string is the symbolic name for the corresponding opcode.  If the
** case statement is followed by a comment of the form "/# same as ... #/"
** that comment is used to determine the particular value of the opcode.
**
** If a comment on the same line as the "case OP_" construction contains
** the word "no-push", then the opcode is guarenteed not to grow the 
** vdbe stack when it is executed. See function opcode() in
** vdbeaux.c for details.
**
** Documentation about VDBE opcodes is generated by scanning this file
** for lines of that contain "Opcode:".  That line and all subsequent
** comment lines are used in the generation of the opcode.html documentation
** file.
**
** SUMMARY:
**
**     Formatting is important to scripts that scan this file.
**     Do not deviate from the formatting style currently in use.
**
*****************************************************************************/

/* Opcode:  Goto * P2 *
**
** An unconditional jump to address P2.
** The next instruction executed will be 
** the one at index P2 from the beginning of
** the program.
*/
case OP_Goto: {             /* no-push */
  CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT;
  pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  Gosub * P2 *
**
** Push the current address plus 1 onto the return address stack
** and then jump to address P2.
**
** The return address stack is of limited depth.  If too many
** OP_Gosub operations occur without intervening OP_Returns, then
** the return address stack will fill up and processing will abort
** with a fatal error.
*/
case OP_Gosub: {            /* no-push */
  assert( p->returnDepth<sizeof(p->returnStack)/sizeof(p->returnStack[0]) );
  p->returnStack[p->returnDepth++] = pc+1;
  pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  Return * * *
**
** Jump immediately to the next instruction after the last unreturned
** OP_Gosub.  If an OP_Return has occurred for all OP_Gosubs, then
** processing aborts with a fatal error.
*/
case OP_Return: {           /* no-push */
  assert( p->returnDepth>0 );
  p->returnDepth--;
  pc = p->returnStack[p->returnDepth] - 1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  Halt P1 P2 P3
**
** Exit immediately.  All open cursors, Fifos, etc are closed
** automatically.
**
** P1 is the result code returned by sqlite3_exec(), sqlite3_reset(),
** or sqlite3_finalize().  For a normal halt, this should be SQLITE_OK (0).
** For errors, it can be some other value.  If P1!=0 then P2 will determine
** whether or not to rollback the current transaction.  Do not rollback
** if P2==OE_Fail. Do the rollback if P2==OE_Rollback.  If P2==OE_Abort,
** then back out all changes that have occurred during this execution of the
** VDBE, but do not rollback the transaction. 
**
** If P3 is not null then it is an error message string.
**
** There is an implied "Halt 0 0 0" instruction inserted at the very end of
** every program.  So a jump past the last instruction of the program
** is the same as executing Halt.
*/
case OP_Halt: {            /* no-push */
  p->pTos = pTos;
  p->rc = pOp->p1;
  p->pc = pc;
  p->errorAction = pOp->p2;
  if( pOp->p3 ){
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, pOp->p3, (char*)0);
  }
  rc = sqlite3VdbeHalt(p);
  assert( rc==SQLITE_BUSY || rc==SQLITE_OK );
  if( rc==SQLITE_BUSY ){
    p->rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
    return SQLITE_BUSY;
  }
  return p->rc ? SQLITE_ERROR : SQLITE_DONE;
}

/* Opcode: Integer P1 * *
**
** The 32-bit integer value P1 is pushed onto the stack.
*/
case OP_Integer: {
  pTos++;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  pTos->i = pOp->p1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Int64 * * P3
**
** P3 is a string representation of an integer.  Convert that integer
** to a 64-bit value and push it onto the stack.
*/
case OP_Int64: {
  pTos++;
  assert( pOp->p3!=0 );
  pTos->flags = MEM_Str|MEM_Static|MEM_Term;
  pTos->z = pOp->p3;
  pTos->n = strlen(pTos->z);
  pTos->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;
  pTos->i = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pTos);
  pTos->flags |= MEM_Int;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Real * * P3
**
** The string value P3 is converted to a real and pushed on to the stack.
*/
case OP_Real: {            /* same as TK_FLOAT, */
  pTos++;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Str|MEM_Static|MEM_Term;
  pTos->z = pOp->p3;
  pTos->n = strlen(pTos->z);
  pTos->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;
  pTos->r = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pTos);
  pTos->flags |= MEM_Real;
  sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pTos, encoding);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: String8 * * P3
**
** P3 points to a nul terminated UTF-8 string. This opcode is transformed 
** into an OP_String before it is executed for the first time.
*/
case OP_String8: {         /* same as TK_STRING */
  assert( pOp->p3!=0 );
  pOp->opcode = OP_String;
  pOp->p1 = strlen(pOp->p3);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
  if( encoding!=SQLITE_UTF8 ){
    pTos++;
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(pTos, pOp->p3, -1, SQLITE_UTF8, SQLITE_STATIC);
    if( SQLITE_OK!=sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pTos, encoding) ) goto no_mem;
    if( SQLITE_OK!=sqlite3VdbeMemDynamicify(pTos) ) goto no_mem;
    pTos->flags &= ~(MEM_Dyn);
    pTos->flags |= MEM_Static;
    if( pOp->p3type==P3_DYNAMIC ){
      sqliteFree(pOp->p3);
    }
    pOp->p3type = P3_DYNAMIC;
    pOp->p3 = pTos->z;
    pOp->p1 = pTos->n;
    break;
  }
#endif
  /* Otherwise fall through to the next case, OP_String */
}
  
/* Opcode: String P1 * P3
**
** The string value P3 of length P1 (bytes) is pushed onto the stack.
*/
case OP_String: {
  pTos++;
  assert( pOp->p3!=0 );
  pTos->flags = MEM_Str|MEM_Static|MEM_Term;
  pTos->z = pOp->p3;
  pTos->n = pOp->p1;
  pTos->enc = encoding;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Null * * *
**
** Push a NULL onto the stack.
*/
case OP_Null: {
  pTos++;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  pTos->n = 0;
  break;
}


#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_BLOB_LITERAL
/* Opcode: HexBlob * * P3
**
** P3 is an UTF-8 SQL hex encoding of a blob. The blob is pushed onto the
** vdbe stack.
**
** The first time this instruction executes, in transforms itself into a
** 'Blob' opcode with a binary blob as P3.
*/
case OP_HexBlob: {            /* same as TK_BLOB */
  pOp->opcode = OP_Blob;
  pOp->p1 = strlen(pOp->p3)/2;
  if( pOp->p1 ){
    char *zBlob = sqlite3HexToBlob(pOp->p3);
    if( !zBlob ) goto no_mem;
    if( pOp->p3type==P3_DYNAMIC ){
      sqliteFree(pOp->p3);
    }
    pOp->p3 = zBlob;
    pOp->p3type = P3_DYNAMIC;
  }else{
    if( pOp->p3type==P3_DYNAMIC ){
      sqliteFree(pOp->p3);
    }
    pOp->p3type = P3_STATIC;
    pOp->p3 = "";
  }

  /* Fall through to the next case, OP_Blob. */
}

/* Opcode: Blob P1 * P3
**
** P3 points to a blob of data P1 bytes long. Push this
** value onto the stack. This instruction is not coded directly
** by the compiler. Instead, the compiler layer specifies
** an OP_HexBlob opcode, with the hex string representation of
** the blob as P3. This opcode is transformed to an OP_Blob
** the first time it is executed.
*/
case OP_Blob: {
  pTos++;
  sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(pTos, pOp->p3, pOp->p1, 0, 0);
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_BLOB_LITERAL */

/* Opcode: Variable P1 * *
**
** Push the value of variable P1 onto the stack.  A variable is
** an unknown in the original SQL string as handed to sqlite3_compile().
** Any occurance of the '?' character in the original SQL is considered
** a variable.  Variables in the SQL string are number from left to
** right beginning with 1.  The values of variables are set using the
** sqlite3_bind() API.
*/
case OP_Variable: {
  int j = pOp->p1 - 1;
  assert( j>=0 && j<p->nVar );

  pTos++;
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pTos, &p->aVar[j], MEM_Static);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Pop P1 * *
**
** P1 elements are popped off of the top of stack and discarded.
*/
case OP_Pop: {            /* no-push */
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 );
  popStack(&pTos, pOp->p1);
  assert( pTos>=&p->aStack[-1] );
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Dup P1 P2 *
**
** A copy of the P1-th element of the stack 
** is made and pushed onto the top of the stack.
** The top of the stack is element 0.  So the
** instruction "Dup 0 0 0" will make a copy of the
** top of the stack.
**
** If the content of the P1-th element is a dynamically
** allocated string, then a new copy of that string
** is made if P2==0.  If P2!=0, then just a pointer
** to the string is copied.
**
** Also see the Pull instruction.
*/
case OP_Dup: {
  Mem *pFrom = &pTos[-pOp->p1];
  assert( pFrom<=pTos && pFrom>=p->aStack );
  pTos++;
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pTos, pFrom, MEM_Ephem);
  if( pOp->p2 ){
    Deephemeralize(pTos);
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Pull P1 * *
**
** The P1-th element is removed from its current location on 
** the stack and pushed back on top of the stack.  The
** top of the stack is element 0, so "Pull 0 0 0" is
** a no-op.  "Pull 1 0 0" swaps the top two elements of
** the stack.
**
** See also the Dup instruction.
*/
case OP_Pull: {            /* no-push */
  Mem *pFrom = &pTos[-pOp->p1];
  int i;
  Mem ts;

  ts = *pFrom;
  Deephemeralize(pTos);
  for(i=0; i<pOp->p1; i++, pFrom++){
    Deephemeralize(&pFrom[1]);
    assert( (pFrom->flags & MEM_Ephem)==0 );
    *pFrom = pFrom[1];
    if( pFrom->flags & MEM_Short ){
      assert( pFrom->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) );
      assert( pFrom->z==pFrom[1].zShort );
      pFrom->z = pFrom->zShort;
    }
  }
  *pTos = ts;
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Short ){
    assert( pTos->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) );
    assert( pTos->z==pTos[-pOp->p1].zShort );
    pTos->z = pTos->zShort;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Push P1 * *
**
** Overwrite the value of the P1-th element down on the
** stack (P1==0 is the top of the stack) with the value
** of the top of the stack.  Then pop the top of the stack.
*/
case OP_Push: {            /* no-push */
  Mem *pTo = &pTos[-pOp->p1];

  assert( pTo>=p->aStack );
  sqlite3VdbeMemMove(pTo, pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Callback P1 * *
**
** The top P1 values on the stack represent a single result row from
** a query.  This opcode causes the sqlite3_step() call to terminate
** with an SQLITE_ROW return code and it sets up the sqlite3_stmt
** structure to provide access to the top P1 values as the result
** row.  When the sqlite3_step() function is run again, the top P1
** values will be automatically popped from the stack before the next
** instruction executes.
*/
case OP_Callback: {            /* no-push */
  Mem *pMem;
  Mem *pFirstColumn;
  assert( p->nResColumn==pOp->p1 );

  /* Data in the pager might be moved or changed out from under us
  ** in between the return from this sqlite3_step() call and the
  ** next call to sqlite3_step().  So deephermeralize everything on 
  ** the stack.  Note that ephemeral data is never stored in memory 
  ** cells so we do not have to worry about them.
  */
  pFirstColumn = &pTos[0-pOp->p1];
  for(pMem = p->aStack; pMem<pFirstColumn; pMem++){
    Deephemeralize(pMem);
  }

  /* Invalidate all ephemeral cursor row caches */
  p->cacheCtr = (p->cacheCtr + 2)|1;

  /* Make sure the results of the current row are \000 terminated
  ** and have an assigned type.  The results are deephemeralized as
  ** as side effect.
  */
  for(; pMem<=pTos; pMem++ ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemNulTerminate(pMem);
    storeTypeInfo(pMem, encoding);
  }

  /* Set up the statement structure so that it will pop the current
  ** results from the stack when the statement returns.
  */
  p->resOnStack = 1;
  p->nCallback++;
  p->popStack = pOp->p1;
  p->pc = pc + 1;
  p->pTos = pTos;
  return SQLITE_ROW;
}

/* Opcode: Concat P1 P2 *
**
** Look at the first P1+2 elements of the stack.  Append them all 
** together with the lowest element first.  The original P1+2 elements
** are popped from the stack if P2==0 and retained if P2==1.  If
** any element of the stack is NULL, then the result is NULL.
**
** When P1==1, this routine makes a copy of the top stack element
** into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().
*/
case OP_Concat: {           /* same as TK_CONCAT */
  char *zNew;
  int nByte;
  int nField;
  int i, j;
  Mem *pTerm;

  /* Loop through the stack elements to see how long the result will be. */
  nField = pOp->p1 + 2;
  pTerm = &pTos[1-nField];
  nByte = 0;
  for(i=0; i<nField; i++, pTerm++){
    assert( pOp->p2==0 || (pTerm->flags&MEM_Str) );
    if( pTerm->flags&MEM_Null ){
      nByte = -1;
      break;
    }
    Stringify(pTerm, encoding);
    nByte += pTerm->n;
  }

  if( nByte<0 ){
    /* If nByte is less than zero, then there is a NULL value on the stack.
    ** In this case just pop the values off the stack (if required) and
    ** push on a NULL.
    */
    if( pOp->p2==0 ){
      popStack(&pTos, nField);
    }
    pTos++;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  }else{
    /* Otherwise malloc() space for the result and concatenate all the
    ** stack values.
    */
    zNew = sqliteMallocRaw( nByte+2 );
    if( zNew==0 ) goto no_mem;
    j = 0;
    pTerm = &pTos[1-nField];
    for(i=j=0; i<nField; i++, pTerm++){
      int n = pTerm->n;
      assert( pTerm->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) );
      memcpy(&zNew[j], pTerm->z, n);
      j += n;
    }
    zNew[j] = 0;
    zNew[j+1] = 0;
    assert( j==nByte );

    if( pOp->p2==0 ){
      popStack(&pTos, nField);
    }
    pTos++;
    pTos->n = j;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Str|MEM_Dyn|MEM_Term;
    pTos->xDel = 0;
    pTos->enc = encoding;
    pTos->z = zNew;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Add * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack, add them together,
** and push the result back onto the stack.  If either element
** is a string then it is converted to a double using the atof()
** function before the addition.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Multiply * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack, multiply them together,
** and push the result back onto the stack.  If either element
** is a string then it is converted to a double using the atof()
** function before the multiplication.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Subtract * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack, subtract the
** first (what was on top of the stack) from the second (the
** next on stack)
** and push the result back onto the stack.  If either element
** is a string then it is converted to a double using the atof()
** function before the subtraction.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Divide * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack, divide the
** first (what was on top of the stack) from the second (the
** next on stack)
** and push the result back onto the stack.  If either element
** is a string then it is converted to a double using the atof()
** function before the division.  Division by zero returns NULL.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Remainder * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack, divide the
** first (what was on top of the stack) from the second (the
** next on stack)
** and push the remainder after division onto the stack.  If either element
** is a string then it is converted to a double using the atof()
** function before the division.  Division by zero returns NULL.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
case OP_Add:                   /* same as TK_PLUS, no-push */
case OP_Subtract:              /* same as TK_MINUS, no-push */
case OP_Multiply:              /* same as TK_STAR, no-push */
case OP_Divide:                /* same as TK_SLASH, no-push */
case OP_Remainder: {           /* same as TK_REM, no-push */
  Mem *pNos = &pTos[-1];
  int flags;
  assert( pNos>=p->aStack );
  flags = pTos->flags | pNos->flags;
  if( (flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ){
    Release(pTos);
    pTos--;
    Release(pTos);
    pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  }else if( (pTos->flags & pNos->flags & MEM_Int)==MEM_Int ){
    i64 a, b;
    a = pTos->i;
    b = pNos->i;
    switch( pOp->opcode ){
      case OP_Add:         b += a;       break;
      case OP_Subtract:    b -= a;       break;
      case OP_Multiply:    b *= a;       break;
      case OP_Divide: {
        if( a==0 ) goto divide_by_zero;
        b /= a;
        break;
      }
      default: {
        if( a==0 ) goto divide_by_zero;
        b %= a;
        break;
      }
    }
    Release(pTos);
    pTos--;
    Release(pTos);
    pTos->i = b;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  }else{
    double a, b;
    a = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pTos);
    b = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pNos);
    switch( pOp->opcode ){
      case OP_Add:         b += a;       break;
      case OP_Subtract:    b -= a;       break;
      case OP_Multiply:    b *= a;       break;
      case OP_Divide: {
        if( a==0.0 ) goto divide_by_zero;
        b /= a;
        break;
      }
      default: {
        int ia = (int)a;
        int ib = (int)b;
        if( ia==0.0 ) goto divide_by_zero;
        b = ib % ia;
        break;
      }
    }
    Release(pTos);
    pTos--;
    Release(pTos);
    pTos->r = b;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Real;
    if( (flags & MEM_Real)==0 ){
      sqlite3VdbeIntegerAffinity(pTos);
    }
  }
  break;

divide_by_zero:
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  Release(pTos);
  pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: CollSeq * * P3
**
** P3 is a pointer to a CollSeq struct. If the next call to a user function
** or aggregate calls sqlite3GetFuncCollSeq(), this collation sequence will
** be returned. This is used by the built-in min(), max() and nullif()
** functions.
**
** The interface used by the implementation of the aforementioned functions
** to retrieve the collation sequence set by this opcode is not available
** publicly, only to user functions defined in func.c.
*/
case OP_CollSeq: {             /* no-push */
  assert( pOp->p3type==P3_COLLSEQ );
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Function P1 P2 P3
**
** Invoke a user function (P3 is a pointer to a Function structure that
** defines the function) with P2 arguments taken from the stack.  Pop all
** arguments from the stack and push back the result.
**
** P1 is a 32-bit bitmask indicating whether or not each argument to the 
** function was determined to be constant at compile time. If the first
** argument was constant then bit 0 of P1 is set. This is used to determine
** whether meta data associated with a user function argument using the
** sqlite3_set_auxdata() API may be safely retained until the next
** invocation of this opcode.
**
** See also: AggStep and AggFinal
*/
case OP_Function: {
  int i;
  Mem *pArg;
  sqlite3_context ctx;
  sqlite3_value **apVal;
  int n = pOp->p2;

  apVal = p->apArg;
  assert( apVal || n==0 );

  pArg = &pTos[1-n];
  for(i=0; i<n; i++, pArg++){
    apVal[i] = pArg;
    storeTypeInfo(pArg, encoding);
  }

  assert( pOp->p3type==P3_FUNCDEF || pOp->p3type==P3_VDBEFUNC );
  if( pOp->p3type==P3_FUNCDEF ){
    ctx.pFunc = (FuncDef*)pOp->p3;
    ctx.pVdbeFunc = 0;
  }else{
    ctx.pVdbeFunc = (VdbeFunc*)pOp->p3;
    ctx.pFunc = ctx.pVdbeFunc->pFunc;
  }

  ctx.s.flags = MEM_Null;
  ctx.s.z = 0;
  ctx.s.xDel = 0;
  ctx.isError = 0;
  if( ctx.pFunc->needCollSeq ){
    assert( pOp>p->aOp );
    assert( pOp[-1].p3type==P3_COLLSEQ );
    assert( pOp[-1].opcode==OP_CollSeq );
    ctx.pColl = (CollSeq *)pOp[-1].p3;
  }
  if( sqlite3SafetyOff(db) ) goto abort_due_to_misuse;
  (*ctx.pFunc->xFunc)(&ctx, n, apVal);
  if( sqlite3SafetyOn(db) ) goto abort_due_to_misuse;
  if( sqlite3MallocFailed() ) goto no_mem;
  popStack(&pTos, n);

  /* If any auxilary data functions have been called by this user function,
  ** immediately call the destructor for any non-static values.
  */
  if( ctx.pVdbeFunc ){
    sqlite3VdbeDeleteAuxData(ctx.pVdbeFunc, pOp->p1);
    pOp->p3 = (char *)ctx.pVdbeFunc;
    pOp->p3type = P3_VDBEFUNC;
  }

  /* If the function returned an error, throw an exception */
  if( ctx.isError ){
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, sqlite3_value_text(&ctx.s), (char*)0);
    rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
  }

  /* Copy the result of the function to the top of the stack */
  sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(&ctx.s, encoding);
  pTos++;
  pTos->flags = 0;
  sqlite3VdbeMemMove(pTos, &ctx.s);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: BitAnd * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack.  Convert both elements
** to integers.  Push back onto the stack the bit-wise AND of the
** two elements.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: BitOr * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack.  Convert both elements
** to integers.  Push back onto the stack the bit-wise OR of the
** two elements.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: ShiftLeft * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack.  Convert both elements
** to integers.  Push back onto the stack the second element shifted
** left by N bits where N is the top element on the stack.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: ShiftRight * * *
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack.  Convert both elements
** to integers.  Push back onto the stack the second element shifted
** right by N bits where N is the top element on the stack.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
case OP_BitAnd:                 /* same as TK_BITAND, no-push */
case OP_BitOr:                  /* same as TK_BITOR, no-push */
case OP_ShiftLeft:              /* same as TK_LSHIFT, no-push */
case OP_ShiftRight: {           /* same as TK_RSHIFT, no-push */
  Mem *pNos = &pTos[-1];
  i64 a, b;

  assert( pNos>=p->aStack );
  if( (pTos->flags | pNos->flags) & MEM_Null ){
    popStack(&pTos, 2);
    pTos++;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
    break;
  }
  a = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pNos);
  b = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pTos);
  switch( pOp->opcode ){
    case OP_BitAnd:      a &= b;     break;
    case OP_BitOr:       a |= b;     break;
    case OP_ShiftLeft:   a <<= b;    break;
    case OP_ShiftRight:  a >>= b;    break;
    default:   /* CANT HAPPEN */     break;
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  Release(pTos);
  pTos->i = a;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: AddImm  P1 * *
** 
** Add the value P1 to whatever is on top of the stack.  The result
** is always an integer.
**
** To force the top of the stack to be an integer, just add 0.
*/
case OP_AddImm: {            /* no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  pTos->i += pOp->p1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ForceInt P1 P2 *
**
** Convert the top of the stack into an integer.  If the current top of
** the stack is not numeric (meaning that is is a NULL or a string that
** does not look like an integer or floating point number) then pop the
** stack and jump to P2.  If the top of the stack is numeric then
** convert it into the least integer that is greater than or equal to its
** current value if P1==0, or to the least integer that is strictly
** greater than its current value if P1==1.
*/
case OP_ForceInt: {            /* no-push */
  i64 v;
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  applyAffinity(pTos, SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC, encoding);
  if( (pTos->flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_Real))==0 ){
    Release(pTos);
    pTos--;
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
    break;
  }
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Int ){
    v = pTos->i + (pOp->p1!=0);
  }else{
    /* FIX ME:  should this not be assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Real ) ??? */
    sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(pTos);
    v = (int)pTos->r;
    if( pTos->r>(double)v ) v++;
    if( pOp->p1 && pTos->r==(double)v ) v++;
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos->i = v;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: MustBeInt P1 P2 *
** 
** Force the top of the stack to be an integer.  If the top of the
** stack is not an integer and cannot be converted into an integer
** with out data loss, then jump immediately to P2, or if P2==0
** raise an SQLITE_MISMATCH exception.
**
** If the top of the stack is not an integer and P2 is not zero and
** P1 is 1, then the stack is popped.  In all other cases, the depth
** of the stack is unchanged.
*/
case OP_MustBeInt: {            /* no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  applyAffinity(pTos, SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC, encoding);
  if( (pTos->flags & MEM_Int)==0 ){
    if( pOp->p2==0 ){
      rc = SQLITE_MISMATCH;
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }else{
      if( pOp->p1 ) popStack(&pTos, 1);
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
    }
  }else{
    Release(pTos);
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: RealAffinity * * *
**
** If the top of the stack is an integer, convert it to a real value.
**
** This opcode is used when extracting information from a column that
** has REAL affinity.  Such column values may still be stored as
** integers, for space efficiency, but after extraction we want them
** to have only a real value.
*/
case OP_RealAffinity: {                  /* no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Int ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(pTos);
  }
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
/* Opcode: ToText * * *
**
** Force the value on the top of the stack to be text.
** If the value is numeric, convert it to a string using the
** equivalent of printf().  Blob values are unchanged and
** are afterwards simply interpreted as text.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToText: {                  /* same as TK_TO_TEXT, no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Null ) break;
  assert( MEM_Str==(MEM_Blob>>3) );
  pTos->flags |= (pTos->flags&MEM_Blob)>>3;
  applyAffinity(pTos, SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, encoding);
  assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Str );
  pTos->flags &= ~(MEM_Int|MEM_Real|MEM_Blob);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ToBlob * * *
**
** Force the value on the top of the stack to be a BLOB.
** If the value is numeric, convert it to a string first.
** Strings are simply reinterpreted as blobs with no change
** to the underlying data.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToBlob: {                  /* same as TK_TO_BLOB, no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Null ) break;
  if( (pTos->flags & MEM_Blob)==0 ){
    applyAffinity(pTos, SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, encoding);
    assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Str );
    pTos->flags |= MEM_Blob;
  }
  pTos->flags &= ~(MEM_Int|MEM_Real|MEM_Str);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ToNumeric * * *
**
** Force the value on the top of the stack to be numeric (either an
** integer or a floating-point number.)
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an using the
** equivalent of atoi() or atof() and store 0 if no such conversion 
** is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToNumeric: {                  /* same as TK_TO_NUMERIC, no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( (pTos->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemNumerify(pTos);
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */

/* Opcode: ToInt * * *
**
** Force the value on the top of the stack to be an integer.  If
** The value is currently a real number, drop its fractional part.
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an integer using the
** equivalent of atoi() and store 0 if no such conversion is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToInt: {                  /* same as TK_TO_INT, no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( (pTos->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  }
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
/* Opcode: ToReal * * *
**
** Force the value on the top of the stack to be a floating point number.
** If The value is currently an integer, convert it.
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an integer using the
** equivalent of atoi() and store 0 if no such conversion is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToReal: {                  /* same as TK_TO_REAL, no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( (pTos->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(pTos);
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */

/* Opcode: Eq P1 P2 P3
**
** Pop the top two elements from the stack.  If they are equal, then
** jump to instruction P2.  Otherwise, continue to the next instruction.
**
** If the 0x100 bit of P1 is true and either operand is NULL then take the
** jump.  If the 0x100 bit of P1 is clear then fall thru if either operand
** is NULL.
**
** If the 0x200 bit of P1 is set and either operand is NULL then
** both operands are converted to integers prior to comparison.
** NULL operands are converted to zero and non-NULL operands are
** converted to 1.  Thus, for example, with 0x200 set,  NULL==NULL is true
** whereas it would normally be NULL.  Similarly,  NULL==123 is false when
** 0x200 is set but is NULL when the 0x200 bit of P1 is clear.
**
** The least significant byte of P1 (mask 0xff) must be an affinity character -
** SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER, and so forth. An attempt is made 
** to coerce both values
** according to the affinity before the comparison is made. If the byte is
** 0x00, then numeric affinity is used.
**
** Once any conversions have taken place, and neither value is NULL, 
** the values are compared. If both values are blobs, or both are text,
** then memcmp() is used to determine the results of the comparison. If
** both values are numeric, then a numeric comparison is used. If the
** two values are of different types, then they are inequal.
**
** If P2 is zero, do not jump.  Instead, push an integer 1 onto the
** stack if the jump would have been taken, or a 0 if not.  Push a
** NULL if either operand was NULL.
**
** If P3 is not NULL it is a pointer to a collating sequence (a CollSeq
** structure) that defines how to compare text.
*/
/* Opcode: Ne P1 P2 P3
**
** This works just like the Eq opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the operands from the stack are not equal.  See the Eq opcode for
** additional information.
*/
/* Opcode: Lt P1 P2 P3
**
** This works just like the Eq opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the 2nd element down on the stack is less than the top of the stack.
** See the Eq opcode for additional information.
*/
/* Opcode: Le P1 P2 P3
**
** This works just like the Eq opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the 2nd element down on the stack is less than or equal to the
** top of the stack.  See the Eq opcode for additional information.
*/
/* Opcode: Gt P1 P2 P3
**
** This works just like the Eq opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the 2nd element down on the stack is greater than the top of the stack.
** See the Eq opcode for additional information.
*/
/* Opcode: Ge P1 P2 P3
**
** This works just like the Eq opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the 2nd element down on the stack is greater than or equal to the
** top of the stack.  See the Eq opcode for additional information.
*/
case OP_Eq:               /* same as TK_EQ, no-push */
case OP_Ne:               /* same as TK_NE, no-push */
case OP_Lt:               /* same as TK_LT, no-push */
case OP_Le:               /* same as TK_LE, no-push */
case OP_Gt:               /* same as TK_GT, no-push */
case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, no-push */
  Mem *pNos;
  int flags;
  int res;
  char affinity;

  pNos = &pTos[-1];
  flags = pTos->flags|pNos->flags;

  /* If either value is a NULL P2 is not zero, take the jump if the least
  ** significant byte of P1 is true. If P2 is zero, then push a NULL onto
  ** the stack.
  */
  if( flags&MEM_Null ){
    if( (pOp->p1 & 0x200)!=0 ){
      /* The 0x200 bit of P1 means, roughly "do not treat NULL as the
      ** magic SQL value it normally is - treat it as if it were another
      ** integer".
      **
      ** With 0x200 set, if either operand is NULL then both operands
      ** are converted to integers prior to being passed down into the
      ** normal comparison logic below.  NULL operands are converted to
      ** zero and non-NULL operands are converted to 1.  Thus, for example,
      ** with 0x200 set,  NULL==NULL is true whereas it would normally
      ** be NULL.  Similarly,  NULL!=123 is true.
      */
      sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pTos, (pTos->flags & MEM_Null)==0);
      sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pNos, (pNos->flags & MEM_Null)==0);
    }else{
      /* If the 0x200 bit of P1 is clear and either operand is NULL then
      ** the result is always NULL.  The jump is taken if the 0x100 bit
      ** of P1 is set.
      */
      popStack(&pTos, 2);
      if( pOp->p2 ){
        if( pOp->p1 & 0x100 ){
          pc = pOp->p2-1;
        }
      }else{
        pTos++;
        pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
      }
      break;
    }
  }

  affinity = pOp->p1 & 0xFF;
  if( affinity ){
    applyAffinity(pNos, affinity, encoding);
    applyAffinity(pTos, affinity, encoding);
  }

  assert( pOp->p3type==P3_COLLSEQ || pOp->p3==0 );
  res = sqlite3MemCompare(pNos, pTos, (CollSeq*)pOp->p3);
  switch( pOp->opcode ){
    case OP_Eq:    res = res==0;     break;
    case OP_Ne:    res = res!=0;     break;
    case OP_Lt:    res = res<0;      break;
    case OP_Le:    res = res<=0;     break;
    case OP_Gt:    res = res>0;      break;
    default:       res = res>=0;     break;
  }

  popStack(&pTos, 2);
  if( pOp->p2 ){
    if( res ){
      pc = pOp->p2-1;
    }
  }else{
    pTos++;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
    pTos->i = res;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: And * * *
**
** Pop two values off the stack.  Take the logical AND of the
** two values and push the resulting boolean value back onto the
** stack. 
*/
/* Opcode: Or * * *
**
** Pop two values off the stack.  Take the logical OR of the
** two values and push the resulting boolean value back onto the
** stack. 
*/
case OP_And:              /* same as TK_AND, no-push */
case OP_Or: {             /* same as TK_OR, no-push */
  Mem *pNos = &pTos[-1];
  int v1, v2;    /* 0==TRUE, 1==FALSE, 2==UNKNOWN or NULL */

  assert( pNos>=p->aStack );
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Null ){
    v1 = 2;
  }else{
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
    v1 = pTos->i==0;
  }
  if( pNos->flags & MEM_Null ){
    v2 = 2;
  }else{
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pNos);
    v2 = pNos->i==0;
  }
  if( pOp->opcode==OP_And ){
    static const unsigned char and_logic[] = { 0, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2 };
    v1 = and_logic[v1*3+v2];
  }else{
    static const unsigned char or_logic[] = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 2 };
    v1 = or_logic[v1*3+v2];
  }
  popStack(&pTos, 2);
  pTos++;
  if( v1==2 ){
    pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  }else{
    pTos->i = v1==0;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Negative * * *
**
** Treat the top of the stack as a numeric quantity.  Replace it
** with its additive inverse.  If the top of the stack is NULL
** its value is unchanged.
*/
/* Opcode: AbsValue * * *
**
** Treat the top of the stack as a numeric quantity.  Replace it
** with its absolute value. If the top of the stack is NULL
** its value is unchanged.
*/
case OP_Negative:              /* same as TK_UMINUS, no-push */
case OP_AbsValue: {
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Real ){
    neg_abs_real_case:
    Release(pTos);
    if( pOp->opcode==OP_Negative || pTos->r<0.0 ){
      pTos->r = -pTos->r;
    }
    pTos->flags = MEM_Real;
  }else if( pTos->flags & MEM_Int ){
    Release(pTos);
    if( pOp->opcode==OP_Negative || pTos->i<0 ){
      pTos->i = -pTos->i;
    }
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  }else if( pTos->flags & MEM_Null ){
    /* Do nothing */
  }else{
    sqlite3VdbeMemNumerify(pTos);
    goto neg_abs_real_case;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Not * * *
**
** Interpret the top of the stack as a boolean value.  Replace it
** with its complement.  If the top of the stack is NULL its value
** is unchanged.
*/
case OP_Not: {                /* same as TK_NOT, no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Null ) break;  /* Do nothing to NULLs */
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  assert( (pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pTos->i = !pTos->i;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: BitNot * * *
**
** Interpret the top of the stack as an value.  Replace it
** with its ones-complement.  If the top of the stack is NULL its
** value is unchanged.
*/
case OP_BitNot: {             /* same as TK_BITNOT, no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Null ) break;  /* Do nothing to NULLs */
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  assert( (pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pTos->i = ~pTos->i;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Noop * * *
**
** Do nothing.  This instruction is often useful as a jump
** destination.
*/
/*
** The magic Explain opcode are only inserted when explain==2 (which
** is to say when the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN syntax is used.)
** This opcode records information from the optimizer.  It is the
** the same as a no-op.  This opcodesnever appears in a real VM program.
*/
case OP_Explain:
case OP_Noop: {            /* no-push */
  break;
}

/* Opcode: If P1 P2 *
**
** Pop a single boolean from the stack.  If the boolean popped is
** true, then jump to p2.  Otherwise continue to the next instruction.
** An integer is false if zero and true otherwise.  A string is
** false if it has zero length and true otherwise.
**
** If the value popped of the stack is NULL, then take the jump if P1
** is true and fall through if P1 is false.
*/
/* Opcode: IfNot P1 P2 *
**
** Pop a single boolean from the stack.  If the boolean popped is
** false, then jump to p2.  Otherwise continue to the next instruction.
** An integer is false if zero and true otherwise.  A string is
** false if it has zero length and true otherwise.
**
** If the value popped of the stack is NULL, then take the jump if P1
** is true and fall through if P1 is false.
*/
case OP_If:                 /* no-push */
case OP_IfNot: {            /* no-push */
  int c;
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( pTos->flags & MEM_Null ){
    c = pOp->p1;
  }else{
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
    c = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pTos);
#else
    c = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pTos)!=0.0;
#endif
    if( pOp->opcode==OP_IfNot ) c = !c;
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  if( c ) pc = pOp->p2-1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IsNull P1 P2 *
**
** If any of the top abs(P1) values on the stack are NULL, then jump
** to P2.  Pop the stack P1 times if P1>0.   If P1<0 leave the stack
** unchanged.
*/
case OP_IsNull: {            /* same as TK_ISNULL, no-push */
  int i, cnt;
  Mem *pTerm;
  cnt = pOp->p1;
  if( cnt<0 ) cnt = -cnt;
  pTerm = &pTos[1-cnt];
  assert( pTerm>=p->aStack );
  for(i=0; i<cnt; i++, pTerm++){
    if( pTerm->flags & MEM_Null ){
      pc = pOp->p2-1;
      break;
    }
  }
  if( pOp->p1>0 ) popStack(&pTos, cnt);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: NotNull P1 P2 *
**
** Jump to P2 if the top P1 values on the stack are all not NULL.  Pop the
** stack if P1 times if P1 is greater than zero.  If P1 is less than
** zero then leave the stack unchanged.
*/
case OP_NotNull: {            /* same as TK_NOTNULL, no-push */
  int i, cnt;
  cnt = pOp->p1;
  if( cnt<0 ) cnt = -cnt;
  assert( &pTos[1-cnt] >= p->aStack );
  for(i=0; i<cnt && (pTos[1+i-cnt].flags & MEM_Null)==0; i++){}
  if( i>=cnt ) pc = pOp->p2-1;
  if( pOp->p1>0 ) popStack(&pTos, cnt);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: SetNumColumns P1 P2 *
**
** Before the OP_Column opcode can be executed on a cursor, this
** opcode must be called to set the number of fields in the table.
**
** This opcode sets the number of columns for cursor P1 to P2.
**
** If OP_KeyAsData is to be applied to cursor P1, it must be executed
** before this op-code.
*/
case OP_SetNumColumns: {       /* no-push */
  Cursor *pC;
  assert( (pOp->p1)<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[pOp->p1]!=0 );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  pC->nField = pOp->p2;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Column P1 P2 P3
**
** Interpret the data that cursor P1 points to as a structure built using
** the MakeRecord instruction.  (See the MakeRecord opcode for additional
** information about the format of the data.) Push onto the stack the value
** of the P2-th column contained in the data. If there are less that (P2+1) 
** values in the record, push a NULL onto the stack.
**
** If the KeyAsData opcode has previously executed on this cursor, then the
** field might be extracted from the key rather than the data.
**
** If the column contains fewer than P2 fields, then push a NULL.  Or
** if P3 is of type P3_MEM, then push the P3 value.  The P3 value will
** be default value for a column that has been added using the ALTER TABLE
** ADD COLUMN command.  If P3 is an ordinary string, just push a NULL.
** When P3 is a string it is really just a comment describing the value
** to be pushed, not a default value.
*/
case OP_Column: {
  u32 payloadSize;   /* Number of bytes in the record */
  int p1 = pOp->p1;  /* P1 value of the opcode */
  int p2 = pOp->p2;  /* column number to retrieve */
  Cursor *pC = 0;    /* The VDBE cursor */
  char *zRec;        /* Pointer to complete record-data */
  BtCursor *pCrsr;   /* The BTree cursor */
  u32 *aType;        /* aType[i] holds the numeric type of the i-th column */
  u32 *aOffset;      /* aOffset[i] is offset to start of data for i-th column */
  u32 nField;        /* number of fields in the record */
  int len;           /* The length of the serialized data for the column */
  int i;             /* Loop counter */
  char *zData;       /* Part of the record being decoded */
  Mem sMem;          /* For storing the record being decoded */

  sMem.flags = 0;
  assert( p1<p->nCursor );
  pTos++;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Null;

  /* This block sets the variable payloadSize to be the total number of
  ** bytes in the record.
  **
  ** zRec is set to be the complete text of the record if it is available.
  ** The complete record text is always available for pseudo-tables
  ** If the record is stored in a cursor, the complete record text
  ** might be available in the  pC->aRow cache.  Or it might not be.
  ** If the data is unavailable,  zRec is set to NULL.
  **
  ** We also compute the number of columns in the record.  For cursors,
  ** the number of columns is stored in the Cursor.nField element.  For
  ** records on the stack, the next entry down on the stack is an integer
  ** which is the number of records.
  */
  pC = p->apCsr[p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( pC->pCursor!=0 ){
    /* The record is stored in a B-Tree */
    rc = sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(pC);
    if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
    zRec = 0;
    pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
    if( pC->nullRow ){
      payloadSize = 0;
    }else if( pC->cacheStatus==p->cacheCtr ){
      payloadSize = pC->payloadSize;
      zRec = (char*)pC->aRow;
    }else if( pC->isIndex ){
      i64 payloadSize64;
      sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pCrsr, &payloadSize64);
      payloadSize = payloadSize64;
    }else{
      sqlite3BtreeDataSize(pCrsr, &payloadSize);
    }
    nField = pC->nField;
  }else if( pC->pseudoTable ){
    /* The record is the sole entry of a pseudo-table */
    payloadSize = pC->nData;
    zRec = pC->pData;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
    assert( payloadSize==0 || zRec!=0 );
    nField = pC->nField;
    pCrsr = 0;
  }else{
    zRec = 0;
    payloadSize = 0;
    pCrsr = 0;
    nField = 0;
  }

  /* If payloadSize is 0, then just push a NULL onto the stack. */
  if( payloadSize==0 ){
    assert( pTos->flags==MEM_Null );
    break;
  }

  assert( p2<nField );

  /* Read and parse the table header.  Store the results of the parse
  ** into the record header cache fields of the cursor.
  */
  if( pC && pC->cacheStatus==p->cacheCtr ){
    aType = pC->aType;
    aOffset = pC->aOffset;
  }else{
    u8 *zIdx;        /* Index into header */
    u8 *zEndHdr;     /* Pointer to first byte after the header */
    u32 offset;      /* Offset into the data */
    int szHdrSz;     /* Size of the header size field at start of record */
    int avail;       /* Number of bytes of available data */

    aType = pC->aType;
    if( aType==0 ){
      pC->aType = aType = sqliteMallocRaw( 2*nField*sizeof(aType) );
    }
    if( aType==0 ){
      goto no_mem;
    }
    pC->aOffset = aOffset = &aType[nField];
    pC->payloadSize = payloadSize;
    pC->cacheStatus = p->cacheCtr;

    /* Figure out how many bytes are in the header */
    if( zRec ){
      zData = zRec;
    }else{
      if( pC->isIndex ){
        zData = (char*)sqlite3BtreeKeyFetch(pCrsr, &avail);
      }else{
        zData = (char*)sqlite3BtreeDataFetch(pCrsr, &avail);
      }
      /* If KeyFetch()/DataFetch() managed to get the entire payload,
      ** save the payload in the pC->aRow cache.  That will save us from
      ** having to make additional calls to fetch the content portion of
      ** the record.
      */
      if( avail>=payloadSize ){
        zRec = zData;
        pC->aRow = (u8*)zData;
      }else{
        pC->aRow = 0;
      }
    }
    assert( zRec!=0 || avail>=payloadSize || avail>=9 );
    szHdrSz = GetVarint((u8*)zData, offset);

    /* The KeyFetch() or DataFetch() above are fast and will get the entire
    ** record header in most cases.  But they will fail to get the complete
    ** record header if the record header does not fit on a single page
    ** in the B-Tree.  When that happens, use sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree() to
    ** acquire the complete header text.
    */
    if( !zRec && avail<offset ){
      rc = sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree(pCrsr, 0, offset, pC->isIndex, &sMem);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        goto op_column_out;
      }
      zData = sMem.z;
    }
    zEndHdr = (u8 *)&zData[offset];
    zIdx = (u8 *)&zData[szHdrSz];

    /* Scan the header and use it to fill in the aType[] and aOffset[]
    ** arrays.  aType[i] will contain the type integer for the i-th
    ** column and aOffset[i] will contain the offset from the beginning
    ** of the record to the start of the data for the i-th column
    */
    for(i=0; i<nField; i++){
      if( zIdx<zEndHdr ){
        aOffset[i] = offset;
        zIdx += GetVarint(zIdx, aType[i]);
        offset += sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(aType[i]);
      }else{
        /* If i is less that nField, then there are less fields in this
        ** record than SetNumColumns indicated there are columns in the
        ** table. Set the offset for any extra columns not present in
        ** the record to 0. This tells code below to push a NULL onto the
        ** stack instead of deserializing a value from the record.
        */
        aOffset[i] = 0;
      }
    }
    Release(&sMem);
    sMem.flags = MEM_Null;

    /* If we have read more header data than was contained in the header,
    ** or if the end of the last field appears to be past the end of the
    ** record, then we must be dealing with a corrupt database.
    */
    if( zIdx>zEndHdr || offset>payloadSize ){
      rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
      goto op_column_out;
    }
  }

  /* Get the column information. If aOffset[p2] is non-zero, then 
  ** deserialize the value from the record. If aOffset[p2] is zero,
  ** then there are not enough fields in the record to satisfy the
  ** request.  In this case, set the value NULL or to P3 if P3 is
  ** a pointer to a Mem object.
  */
  if( aOffset[p2] ){
    assert( rc==SQLITE_OK );
    if( zRec ){
      zData = &zRec[aOffset[p2]];
    }else{
      len = sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(aType[p2]);
      rc = sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree(pCrsr, aOffset[p2], len, pC->isIndex,&sMem);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        goto op_column_out;
      }
      zData = sMem.z;
    }
    sqlite3VdbeSerialGet((u8*)zData, aType[p2], pTos);
    pTos->enc = encoding;
  }else{
    if( pOp->p3type==P3_MEM ){
      sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pTos, (Mem *)(pOp->p3), MEM_Static);
    }else{
      pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
    }
  }

  /* If we dynamically allocated space to hold the data (in the
  ** sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree() call above) then transfer control of that
  ** dynamically allocated space over to the pTos structure.
  ** This prevents a memory copy.
  */
  if( (sMem.flags & MEM_Dyn)!=0 ){
    assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Ephem );
    assert( pTos->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) );
    assert( pTos->z==sMem.z );
    assert( sMem.flags & MEM_Term );
    pTos->flags &= ~MEM_Ephem;
    pTos->flags |= MEM_Dyn|MEM_Term;
  }

  /* pTos->z might be pointing to sMem.zShort[].  Fix that so that we
  ** can abandon sMem */
  rc = sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable(pTos);

op_column_out:
  break;
}

/* Opcode: MakeRecord P1 P2 P3
**
** Convert the top abs(P1) entries of the stack into a single entry
** suitable for use as a data record in a database table or as a key
** in an index.  The details of the format are irrelavant as long as
** the OP_Column opcode can decode the record later and as long as the
** sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare function will correctly compare two encoded
** records.  Refer to source code comments for the details of the record
** format.
**
** The original stack entries are popped from the stack if P1>0 but
** remain on the stack if P1<0.
**
** If P2 is not zero and one or more of the entries are NULL, then jump
** to the address given by P2.  This feature can be used to skip a
** uniqueness test on indices.
**
** P3 may be a string that is P1 characters long.  The nth character of the
** string indicates the column affinity that should be used for the nth
** field of the index key (i.e. the first character of P3 corresponds to the
** lowest element on the stack).
**
** The mapping from character to affinity is given by the SQLITE_AFF_
** macros defined in sqliteInt.h.
**
** If P3 is NULL then all index fields have the affinity NONE.
**
** See also OP_MakeIdxRec
*/
/* Opcode: MakeIdxRec P1 P2 P3
**
** This opcode works just OP_MakeRecord except that it reads an extra
** integer from the stack (thus reading a total of abs(P1+1) entries)
** and appends that extra integer to the end of the record as a varint.
** This results in an index key.
*/
case OP_MakeIdxRec:
case OP_MakeRecord: {
  /* Assuming the record contains N fields, the record format looks
  ** like this:
  **
  ** ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  ** | hdr-size | type 0 | type 1 | ... | type N-1 | data0 | ... | data N-1 | 
  ** ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  **
  ** Data(0) is taken from the lowest element of the stack and data(N-1) is
  ** the top of the stack.
  **
  ** Each type field is a varint representing the serial type of the 
  ** corresponding data element (see sqlite3VdbeSerialType()). The
  ** hdr-size field is also a varint which is the offset from the beginning
  ** of the record to data0.
  */
  unsigned char *zNewRecord;
  unsigned char *zCsr;
  Mem *pRec;
  Mem *pRowid = 0;
  int nData = 0;         /* Number of bytes of data space */
  int nHdr = 0;          /* Number of bytes of header space */
  int nByte = 0;         /* Space required for this record */
  int nVarint;           /* Number of bytes in a varint */
  u32 serial_type;       /* Type field */
  int containsNull = 0;  /* True if any of the data fields are NULL */
  char zTemp[NBFS];      /* Space to hold small records */
  Mem *pData0;

  int leaveOnStack;      /* If true, leave the entries on the stack */
  int nField;            /* Number of fields in the record */
  int jumpIfNull;        /* Jump here if non-zero and any entries are NULL. */
  int addRowid;          /* True to append a rowid column at the end */
  char *zAffinity;       /* The affinity string for the record */
  int file_format;       /* File format to use for encoding */

  leaveOnStack = ((pOp->p1<0)?1:0);
  nField = pOp->p1 * (leaveOnStack?-1:1);
  jumpIfNull = pOp->p2;
  addRowid = pOp->opcode==OP_MakeIdxRec;
  zAffinity = pOp->p3;

  pData0 = &pTos[1-nField];
  assert( pData0>=p->aStack );
  containsNull = 0;
  file_format = p->minWriteFileFormat;

  /* Loop through the elements that will make up the record to figure
  ** out how much space is required for the new record.
  */
  for(pRec=pData0; pRec<=pTos; pRec++){
    if( zAffinity ){
      applyAffinity(pRec, zAffinity[pRec-pData0], encoding);
    }
    if( pRec->flags&MEM_Null ){
      containsNull = 1;
    }
    serial_type = sqlite3VdbeSerialType(pRec, file_format);
    nData += sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(serial_type);
    nHdr += sqlite3VarintLen(serial_type);
  }

  /* If we have to append a varint rowid to this record, set 'rowid'
  ** to the value of the rowid and increase nByte by the amount of space
  ** required to store it and the 0x00 seperator byte.
  */
  if( addRowid ){
    pRowid = &pTos[0-nField];
    assert( pRowid>=p->aStack );
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pRowid);
    serial_type = sqlite3VdbeSerialType(pRowid, 0);
    nData += sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(serial_type);
    nHdr += sqlite3VarintLen(serial_type);
  }

  /* Add the initial header varint and total the size */
  nHdr += nVarint = sqlite3VarintLen(nHdr);
  if( nVarint<sqlite3VarintLen(nHdr) ){
    nHdr++;
  }
  nByte = nHdr+nData;

  /* Allocate space for the new record. */
  if( nByte>sizeof(zTemp) ){
    zNewRecord = sqliteMallocRaw(nByte);
    if( !zNewRecord ){
      goto no_mem;
    }
  }else{
    zNewRecord = (u8*)zTemp;
  }

  /* Write the record */
  zCsr = zNewRecord;
  zCsr += sqlite3PutVarint(zCsr, nHdr);
  for(pRec=pData0; pRec<=pTos; pRec++){
    serial_type = sqlite3VdbeSerialType(pRec, file_format);
    zCsr += sqlite3PutVarint(zCsr, serial_type);      /* serial type */
  }
  if( addRowid ){
    zCsr += sqlite3PutVarint(zCsr, sqlite3VdbeSerialType(pRowid, 0));
  }
  for(pRec=pData0; pRec<=pTos; pRec++){
    zCsr += sqlite3VdbeSerialPut(zCsr, pRec, file_format);  /* serial data */
  }
  if( addRowid ){
    zCsr += sqlite3VdbeSerialPut(zCsr, pRowid, 0);
  }
  assert( zCsr==(zNewRecord+nByte) );

  /* Pop entries off the stack if required. Push the new record on. */
  if( !leaveOnStack ){
    popStack(&pTos, nField+addRowid);
  }
  pTos++;
  pTos->n = nByte;
  if( nByte<=sizeof(zTemp) ){
    assert( zNewRecord==(unsigned char *)zTemp );
    pTos->z = pTos->zShort;
    memcpy(pTos->zShort, zTemp, nByte);
    pTos->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Short;
  }else{
    assert( zNewRecord!=(unsigned char *)zTemp );
    pTos->z = (char*)zNewRecord;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Dyn;
    pTos->xDel = 0;
  }
  pTos->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;  /* In case the blob is ever converted to text */

  /* If a NULL was encountered and jumpIfNull is non-zero, take the jump. */
  if( jumpIfNull && containsNull ){
    pc = jumpIfNull - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Statement P1 * *
**
** Begin an individual statement transaction which is part of a larger
** BEGIN..COMMIT transaction.  This is needed so that the statement
** can be rolled back after an error without having to roll back the
** entire transaction.  The statement transaction will automatically
** commit when the VDBE halts.
**
** The statement is begun on the database file with index P1.  The main
** database file has an index of 0 and the file used for temporary tables
** has an index of 1.
*/
case OP_Statement: {       /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Btree *pBt;
  if( i>=0 && i<db->nDb && (pBt = db->aDb[i].pBt)!=0 && !(db->autoCommit) ){
    assert( sqlite3BtreeIsInTrans(pBt) );
    if( !sqlite3BtreeIsInStmt(pBt) ){
      rc = sqlite3BtreeBeginStmt(pBt);
    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: AutoCommit P1 P2 *
**
** Set the database auto-commit flag to P1 (1 or 0). If P2 is true, roll
** back any currently active btree transactions. If there are any active
** VMs (apart from this one), then the COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement fails.
**
** This instruction causes the VM to halt.
*/
case OP_AutoCommit: {       /* no-push */
  u8 i = pOp->p1;
  u8 rollback = pOp->p2;

  assert( i==1 || i==0 );
  assert( i==1 || rollback==0 );

  assert( db->activeVdbeCnt>0 );  /* At least this one VM is active */

  if( db->activeVdbeCnt>1 && i && !db->autoCommit ){
    /* If this instruction implements a COMMIT or ROLLBACK, other VMs are
    ** still running, and a transaction is active, return an error indicating
    ** that the other VMs must complete first. 
    */
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, "cannot ", rollback?"rollback":"commit", 
        " transaction - SQL statements in progress", (char*)0);
    rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
  }else if( i!=db->autoCommit ){
    if( pOp->p2 ){
      assert( i==1 );
      sqlite3RollbackAll(db);
      db->autoCommit = 1;
    }else{
      db->autoCommit = i;
      if( sqlite3VdbeHalt(p)==SQLITE_BUSY ){
        p->pTos = pTos;
        p->pc = pc;
        db->autoCommit = 1-i;
        p->rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
        return SQLITE_BUSY;
      }
    }
    return SQLITE_DONE;
  }else{
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg,
        (!i)?"cannot start a transaction within a transaction":(
        (rollback)?"cannot rollback - no transaction is active":
                   "cannot commit - no transaction is active"), (char*)0);
         
    rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Transaction P1 P2 *
**
** Begin a transaction.  The transaction ends when a Commit or Rollback
** opcode is encountered.  Depending on the ON CONFLICT setting, the
** transaction might also be rolled back if an error is encountered.
**
** P1 is the index of the database file on which the transaction is
** started.  Index 0 is the main database file and index 1 is the
** file used for temporary tables.
**
** If P2 is non-zero, then a write-transaction is started.  A RESERVED lock is
** obtained on the database file when a write-transaction is started.  No
** other process can start another write transaction while this transaction is
** underway.  Starting a write transaction also creates a rollback journal. A
** write transaction must be started before any changes can be made to the
** database.  If P2 is 2 or greater then an EXCLUSIVE lock is also obtained
** on the file.
**
** If P2 is zero, then a read-lock is obtained on the database file.
*/
case OP_Transaction: {       /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Btree *pBt;

  assert( i>=0 && i<db->nDb );
  pBt = db->aDb[i].pBt;

  if( pBt ){
    rc = sqlite3BtreeBeginTrans(pBt, pOp->p2);
    if( rc==SQLITE_BUSY ){
      p->pc = pc;
      p->rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
      p->pTos = pTos;
      return SQLITE_BUSY;
    }
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK && rc!=SQLITE_READONLY /* && rc!=SQLITE_BUSY */ ){
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ReadCookie P1 P2 *
**
** Read cookie number P2 from database P1 and push it onto the stack.
** P2==0 is the schema version.  P2==1 is the database format.
** P2==2 is the recommended pager cache size, and so forth.  P1==0 is
** the main database file and P1==1 is the database file used to store
** temporary tables.
**
** There must be a read-lock on the database (either a transaction
** must be started or there must be an open cursor) before
** executing this instruction.
*/
case OP_ReadCookie: {
  int iMeta;
  assert( pOp->p2<SQLITE_N_BTREE_META );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<db->nDb );
  assert( db->aDb[pOp->p1].pBt!=0 );
  /* The indexing of meta values at the schema layer is off by one from
  ** the indexing in the btree layer.  The btree considers meta[0] to
  ** be the number of free pages in the database (a read-only value)
  ** and meta[1] to be the schema cookie.  The schema layer considers
  ** meta[1] to be the schema cookie.  So we have to shift the index
  ** by one in the following statement.
  */
  rc = sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(db->aDb[pOp->p1].pBt, 1 + pOp->p2, (u32 *)&iMeta);
  pTos++;
  pTos->i = iMeta;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: SetCookie P1 P2 *
**
** Write the top of the stack into cookie number P2 of database P1.
** P2==0 is the schema version.  P2==1 is the database format.
** P2==2 is the recommended pager cache size, and so forth.  P1==0 is
** the main database file and P1==1 is the database file used to store
** temporary tables.
**
** A transaction must be started before executing this opcode.
*/
case OP_SetCookie: {       /* no-push */
  Db *pDb;
  assert( pOp->p2<SQLITE_N_BTREE_META );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<db->nDb );
  pDb = &db->aDb[pOp->p1];
  assert( pDb->pBt!=0 );
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  /* See note about index shifting on OP_ReadCookie */
  rc = sqlite3BtreeUpdateMeta(pDb->pBt, 1+pOp->p2, (int)pTos->i);
  if( pOp->p2==0 ){
    /* When the schema cookie changes, record the new cookie internally */
    pDb->pSchema->schema_cookie = pTos->i;
    db->flags |= SQLITE_InternChanges;
  }else if( pOp->p2==1 ){
    /* Record changes in the file format */
    pDb->pSchema->file_format = pTos->i;
  }
  assert( (pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pTos--;
  if( pOp->p1==1 ){
    /* Invalidate all prepared statements whenever the TEMP database
    ** schema is changed.  Ticket #1644 */
    sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(db);
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: VerifyCookie P1 P2 *
**
** Check the value of global database parameter number 0 (the
** schema version) and make sure it is equal to P2.  
** P1 is the database number which is 0 for the main database file
** and 1 for the file holding temporary tables and some higher number
** for auxiliary databases.
**
** The cookie changes its value whenever the database schema changes.
** This operation is used to detect when that the cookie has changed
** and that the current process needs to reread the schema.
**
** Either a transaction needs to have been started or an OP_Open needs
** to be executed (to establish a read lock) before this opcode is
** invoked.
*/
case OP_VerifyCookie: {       /* no-push */
  int iMeta;
  Btree *pBt;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<db->nDb );
  pBt = db->aDb[pOp->p1].pBt;
  if( pBt ){
    rc = sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(pBt, 1, (u32 *)&iMeta);
  }else{
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
    iMeta = 0;
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && iMeta!=pOp->p2 ){
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, "database schema has changed", (char*)0);
    rc = SQLITE_SCHEMA;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: OpenRead P1 P2 P3
**
** Open a read-only cursor for the database table whose root page is
** P2 in a database file.  The database file is determined by an 
** integer from the top of the stack.  0 means the main database and
** 1 means the database used for temporary tables.  Give the new 
** cursor an identifier of P1.  The P1 values need not be contiguous
** but all P1 values should be small integers.  It is an error for
** P1 to be negative.
**
** If P2==0 then take the root page number from the next of the stack.
**
** There will be a read lock on the database whenever there is an
** open cursor.  If the database was unlocked prior to this instruction
** then a read lock is acquired as part of this instruction.  A read
** lock allows other processes to read the database but prohibits
** any other process from modifying the database.  The read lock is
** released when all cursors are closed.  If this instruction attempts
** to get a read lock but fails, the script terminates with an
** SQLITE_BUSY error code.
**
** The P3 value is a pointer to a KeyInfo structure that defines the
** content and collating sequence of indices.  P3 is NULL for cursors
** that are not pointing to indices.
**
** See also OpenWrite.
*/
/* Opcode: OpenWrite P1 P2 P3
**
** Open a read/write cursor named P1 on the table or index whose root
** page is P2.  If P2==0 then take the root page number from the stack.
**
** The P3 value is a pointer to a KeyInfo structure that defines the
** content and collating sequence of indices.  P3 is NULL for cursors
** that are not pointing to indices.
**
** This instruction works just like OpenRead except that it opens the cursor
** in read/write mode.  For a given table, there can be one or more read-only
** cursors or a single read/write cursor but not both.
**
** See also OpenRead.
*/
case OP_OpenRead:          /* no-push */
case OP_OpenWrite: {       /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  int p2 = pOp->p2;
  int wrFlag;
  Btree *pX;
  int iDb;
  Cursor *pCur;
  Db *pDb;
  
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  iDb = pTos->i;
  assert( (pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pTos--;
  assert( iDb>=0 && iDb<db->nDb );
  pDb = &db->aDb[iDb];
  pX = pDb->pBt;
  assert( pX!=0 );
  if( pOp->opcode==OP_OpenWrite ){
    wrFlag = 1;
    if( pDb->pSchema->file_format < p->minWriteFileFormat ){
      p->minWriteFileFormat = pDb->pSchema->file_format;
    }
  }else{
    wrFlag = 0;
  }
  if( p2<=0 ){
    assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
    p2 = pTos->i;
    assert( (pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
    pTos--;
    assert( p2>=2 );
  }
  assert( i>=0 );
  pCur = allocateCursor(p, i, iDb);
  if( pCur==0 ) goto no_mem;
  pCur->nullRow = 1;
  if( pX==0 ) break;
  /* We always provide a key comparison function.  If the table being
  ** opened is of type INTKEY, the comparision function will be ignored. */
  rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pX, p2, wrFlag,
           sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare, pOp->p3,
           &pCur->pCursor);
  if( pOp->p3type==P3_KEYINFO ){
    pCur->pKeyInfo = (KeyInfo*)pOp->p3;
    pCur->pIncrKey = &pCur->pKeyInfo->incrKey;
    pCur->pKeyInfo->enc = ENC(p->db);
  }else{
    pCur->pKeyInfo = 0;
    pCur->pIncrKey = &pCur->bogusIncrKey;
  }
  switch( rc ){
    case SQLITE_BUSY: {
      p->pc = pc;
      p->rc = SQLITE_BUSY;
      p->pTos = &pTos[1 + (pOp->p2<=0)]; /* Operands must remain on stack */
      return SQLITE_BUSY;
    }
    case SQLITE_OK: {
      int flags = sqlite3BtreeFlags(pCur->pCursor);
      /* Sanity checking.  Only the lower four bits of the flags byte should
      ** be used.  Bit 3 (mask 0x08) is unpreditable.  The lower 3 bits
      ** (mask 0x07) should be either 5 (intkey+leafdata for tables) or
      ** 2 (zerodata for indices).  If these conditions are not met it can
      ** only mean that we are dealing with a corrupt database file
      */
      if( (flags & 0xf0)!=0 || ((flags & 0x07)!=5 && (flags & 0x07)!=2) ){
        rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
      pCur->isTable = (flags & BTREE_INTKEY)!=0;
      pCur->isIndex = (flags & BTREE_ZERODATA)!=0;
      /* If P3==0 it means we are expected to open a table.  If P3!=0 then
      ** we expect to be opening an index.  If this is not what happened,
      ** then the database is corrupt
      */
      if( (pCur->isTable && pOp->p3type==P3_KEYINFO)
       || (pCur->isIndex && pOp->p3type!=P3_KEYINFO) ){
        rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
      break;
    }
    case SQLITE_EMPTY: {
      pCur->isTable = pOp->p3type!=P3_KEYINFO;
      pCur->isIndex = !pCur->isTable;
      rc = SQLITE_OK;
      break;
    }
    default: {
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: OpenVirtual P1 P2 P3
**
** Open a new cursor P1 to a transient or virtual table.
** The cursor is always opened read/write even if 
** the main database is read-only.  The transient or virtual
** table is deleted automatically when the cursor is closed.
**
** P2 is the number of columns in the virtual table.
** The cursor points to a BTree table if P3==0 and to a BTree index
** if P3 is not 0.  If P3 is not NULL, it points to a KeyInfo structure
** that defines the format of keys in the index.
*/
case OP_OpenVirtual: {       /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pCx;
  assert( i>=0 );
  pCx = allocateCursor(p, i, -1);
  if( pCx==0 ) goto no_mem;
  pCx->nullRow = 1;
  rc = sqlite3BtreeFactory(db, 0, 1, TEMP_PAGES, &pCx->pBt);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3BtreeBeginTrans(pCx->pBt, 1);
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    /* If a transient index is required, create it by calling
    ** sqlite3BtreeCreateTable() with the BTREE_ZERODATA flag before
    ** opening it. If a transient table is required, just use the
    ** automatically created table with root-page 1 (an INTKEY table).
    */
    if( pOp->p3 ){
      int pgno;
      assert( pOp->p3type==P3_KEYINFO );
      rc = sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(pCx->pBt, &pgno, BTREE_ZERODATA); 
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        assert( pgno==MASTER_ROOT+1 );
        rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pCx->pBt, pgno, 1, sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare,
            pOp->p3, &pCx->pCursor);
        pCx->pKeyInfo = (KeyInfo*)pOp->p3;
        pCx->pKeyInfo->enc = ENC(p->db);
        pCx->pIncrKey = &pCx->pKeyInfo->incrKey;
      }
      pCx->isTable = 0;
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pCx->pBt, MASTER_ROOT, 1, 0, 0, &pCx->pCursor);
      pCx->isTable = 1;
      pCx->pIncrKey = &pCx->bogusIncrKey;
    }
  }
  pCx->nField = pOp->p2;
  pCx->isIndex = !pCx->isTable;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: OpenPseudo P1 * *
**
** Open a new cursor that points to a fake table that contains a single
** row of data.  Any attempt to write a second row of data causes the
** first row to be deleted.  All data is deleted when the cursor is
** closed.
**
** A pseudo-table created by this opcode is useful for holding the
** NEW or OLD tables in a trigger.  Also used to hold the a single
** row output from the sorter so that the row can be decomposed into
** individual columns using the OP_Column opcode.
*/
case OP_OpenPseudo: {       /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pCx;
  assert( i>=0 );
  pCx = allocateCursor(p, i, -1);
  if( pCx==0 ) goto no_mem;
  pCx->nullRow = 1;
  pCx->pseudoTable = 1;
  pCx->pIncrKey = &pCx->bogusIncrKey;
  pCx->isTable = 1;
  pCx->isIndex = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Close P1 * *
**
** Close a cursor previously opened as P1.  If P1 is not
** currently open, this instruction is a no-op.
*/
case OP_Close: {       /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  if( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor ){
    sqlite3VdbeFreeCursor(p->apCsr[i]);
    p->apCsr[i] = 0;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: MoveGe P1 P2 *
**
** Pop the top of the stack and use its value as a key.  Reposition
** cursor P1 so that it points to the smallest entry that is greater
** than or equal to the key that was popped ffrom the stack.
** If there are no records greater than or equal to the key and P2 
** is not zero, then jump to P2.
**
** See also: Found, NotFound, Distinct, MoveLt, MoveGt, MoveLe
*/
/* Opcode: MoveGt P1 P2 *
**
** Pop the top of the stack and use its value as a key.  Reposition
** cursor P1 so that it points to the smallest entry that is greater
** than the key from the stack.
** If there are no records greater than the key and P2 is not zero,
** then jump to P2.
**
** See also: Found, NotFound, Distinct, MoveLt, MoveGe, MoveLe
*/
/* Opcode: MoveLt P1 P2 *
**
** Pop the top of the stack and use its value as a key.  Reposition
** cursor P1 so that it points to the largest entry that is less
** than the key from the stack.
** If there are no records less than the key and P2 is not zero,
** then jump to P2.
**
** See also: Found, NotFound, Distinct, MoveGt, MoveGe, MoveLe
*/
/* Opcode: MoveLe P1 P2 *
**
** Pop the top of the stack and use its value as a key.  Reposition
** cursor P1 so that it points to the largest entry that is less than
** or equal to the key that was popped from the stack.
** If there are no records less than or eqal to the key and P2 is not zero,
** then jump to P2.
**
** See also: Found, NotFound, Distinct, MoveGt, MoveGe, MoveLt
*/
case OP_MoveLt:         /* no-push */
case OP_MoveLe:         /* no-push */
case OP_MoveGe:         /* no-push */
case OP_MoveGt: {       /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;

  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[i];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( pC->pCursor!=0 ){
    int res, oc;
    oc = pOp->opcode;
    pC->nullRow = 0;
    *pC->pIncrKey = oc==OP_MoveGt || oc==OP_MoveLe;
    if( pC->isTable ){
      i64 iKey;
      sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
      iKey = intToKey(pTos->i);
      if( pOp->p2==0 && pOp->opcode==OP_MoveGe ){
        pC->movetoTarget = iKey;
        pC->deferredMoveto = 1;
        assert( (pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
        pTos--;
        break;
      }
      rc = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(pC->pCursor, 0, (u64)iKey, &res);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
      pC->lastRowid = pTos->i;
      pC->rowidIsValid = res==0;
    }else{
      assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Blob );
      /* Stringify(pTos, encoding); */
      rc = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(pC->pCursor, pTos->z, pTos->n, &res);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
      pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
    }
    pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
    *pC->pIncrKey = 0;
    sqlite3_search_count++;
    if( oc==OP_MoveGe || oc==OP_MoveGt ){
      if( res<0 ){
        rc = sqlite3BtreeNext(pC->pCursor, &res);
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto abort_due_to_error;
        pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
      }else{
        res = 0;
      }
    }else{
      assert( oc==OP_MoveLt || oc==OP_MoveLe );
      if( res>=0 ){
        rc = sqlite3BtreePrevious(pC->pCursor, &res);
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto abort_due_to_error;
        pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
      }else{
        /* res might be negative because the table is empty.  Check to
        ** see if this is the case.
        */
        res = sqlite3BtreeEof(pC->pCursor);
      }
    }
    if( res ){
      if( pOp->p2>0 ){
        pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
      }else{
        pC->nullRow = 1;
      }
    }
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Distinct P1 P2 *
**
** Use the top of the stack as a record created using MakeRecord.  P1 is a
** cursor on a table that declared as an index.  If that table contains an
** entry that matches the top of the stack fall thru.  If the top of the stack
** matches no entry in P1 then jump to P2.
**
** The cursor is left pointing at the matching entry if it exists.  The
** record on the top of the stack is not popped.
**
** This instruction is similar to NotFound except that this operation
** does not pop the key from the stack.
**
** The instruction is used to implement the DISTINCT operator on SELECT
** statements.  The P1 table is not a true index but rather a record of
** all results that have produced so far.  
**
** See also: Found, NotFound, MoveTo, IsUnique, NotExists
*/
/* Opcode: Found P1 P2 *
**
** Top of the stack holds a blob constructed by MakeRecord.  P1 is an index.
** If an entry that matches the top of the stack exists in P1 then
** jump to P2.  If the top of the stack does not match any entry in P1
** then fall thru.  The P1 cursor is left pointing at the matching entry
** if it exists.  The blob is popped off the top of the stack.
**
** This instruction is used to implement the IN operator where the
** left-hand side is a SELECT statement.  P1 is not a true index but
** is instead a temporary index that holds the results of the SELECT
** statement.  This instruction just checks to see if the left-hand side
** of the IN operator (stored on the top of the stack) exists in the
** result of the SELECT statement.
**
** See also: Distinct, NotFound, MoveTo, IsUnique, NotExists
*/
/* Opcode: NotFound P1 P2 *
**
** The top of the stack holds a blob constructed by MakeRecord.  P1 is
** an index.  If no entry exists in P1 that matches the blob then jump
** to P1.  If an entry does existing, fall through.  The cursor is left
** pointing to the entry that matches.  The blob is popped from the stack.
**
** The difference between this operation and Distinct is that
** Distinct does not pop the key from the stack.
**
** See also: Distinct, Found, MoveTo, NotExists, IsUnique
*/
case OP_Distinct:       /* no-push */
case OP_NotFound:       /* no-push */
case OP_Found: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  int alreadyExists = 0;
  Cursor *pC;
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  if( (pC = p->apCsr[i])->pCursor!=0 ){
    int res, rx;
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    Stringify(pTos, encoding);
    rx = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(pC->pCursor, pTos->z, pTos->n, &res);
    alreadyExists = rx==SQLITE_OK && res==0;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  }
  if( pOp->opcode==OP_Found ){
    if( alreadyExists ) pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }else{
    if( !alreadyExists ) pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  if( pOp->opcode!=OP_Distinct ){
    Release(pTos);
    pTos--;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IsUnique P1 P2 *
**
** The top of the stack is an integer record number.  Call this
** record number R.  The next on the stack is an index key created
** using MakeIdxRec.  Call it K.  This instruction pops R from the
** stack but it leaves K unchanged.
**
** P1 is an index.  So it has no data and its key consists of a
** record generated by OP_MakeRecord where the last field is the 
** rowid of the entry that the index refers to.
** 
** This instruction asks if there is an entry in P1 where the
** fields matches K but the rowid is different from R.
** If there is no such entry, then there is an immediate
** jump to P2.  If any entry does exist where the index string
** matches K but the record number is not R, then the record
** number for that entry is pushed onto the stack and control
** falls through to the next instruction.
**
** See also: Distinct, NotFound, NotExists, Found
*/
case OP_IsUnique: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Mem *pNos = &pTos[-1];
  Cursor *pCx;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  i64 R;

  /* Pop the value R off the top of the stack
  */
  assert( pNos>=p->aStack );
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  R = pTos->i;
  assert( (pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pTos--;
  assert( i>=0 && i<=p->nCursor );
  pCx = p->apCsr[i];
  assert( pCx!=0 );
  pCrsr = pCx->pCursor;
  if( pCrsr!=0 ){
    int res;
    i64 v;         /* The record number on the P1 entry that matches K */
    char *zKey;    /* The value of K */
    int nKey;      /* Number of bytes in K */
    int len;       /* Number of bytes in K without the rowid at the end */
    int szRowid;   /* Size of the rowid column at the end of zKey */

    /* Make sure K is a string and make zKey point to K
    */
    Stringify(pNos, encoding);
    zKey = pNos->z;
    nKey = pNos->n;

    szRowid = sqlite3VdbeIdxRowidLen((u8*)zKey);
    len = nKey-szRowid;

    /* Search for an entry in P1 where all but the last four bytes match K.
    ** If there is no such entry, jump immediately to P2.
    */
    assert( pCx->deferredMoveto==0 );
    pCx->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
    rc = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(pCrsr, zKey, len, &res);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
    if( res<0 ){
      rc = sqlite3BtreeNext(pCrsr, &res);
      if( res ){
        pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
        break;
      }
    }
    rc = sqlite3VdbeIdxKeyCompare(pCx, len, (u8*)zKey, &res); 
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto abort_due_to_error;
    if( res>0 ){
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
      break;
    }

    /* At this point, pCrsr is pointing to an entry in P1 where all but
    ** the final entry (the rowid) matches K.  Check to see if the
    ** final rowid column is different from R.  If it equals R then jump
    ** immediately to P2.
    */
    rc = sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(pCrsr, &v);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
    if( v==R ){
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
      break;
    }

    /* The final varint of the key is different from R.  Push it onto
    ** the stack.  (The record number of an entry that violates a UNIQUE
    ** constraint.)
    */
    pTos++;
    pTos->i = v;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: NotExists P1 P2 *
**
** Use the top of the stack as a integer key.  If a record with that key
** does not exist in table of P1, then jump to P2.  If the record
** does exist, then fall thru.  The cursor is left pointing to the
** record if it exists.  The integer key is popped from the stack.
**
** The difference between this operation and NotFound is that this
** operation assumes the key is an integer and that P1 is a table whereas
** NotFound assumes key is a blob constructed from MakeRecord and
** P1 is an index.
**
** See also: Distinct, Found, MoveTo, NotFound, IsUnique
*/
case OP_NotExists: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  if( (pCrsr = (pC = p->apCsr[i])->pCursor)!=0 ){
    int res;
    u64 iKey;
    assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Int );
    assert( p->apCsr[i]->isTable );
    iKey = intToKey(pTos->i);
    rc = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(pCrsr, 0, iKey, &res);
    pC->lastRowid = pTos->i;
    pC->rowidIsValid = res==0;
    pC->nullRow = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
    if( res!=0 ){
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
      pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
    }
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Sequence P1 * *
**
** Push an integer onto the stack which is the next available
** sequence number for cursor P1.  The sequence number on the
** cursor is incremented after the push.
*/
case OP_Sequence: {
  int i = pOp->p1;
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  pTos++;
  pTos->i = p->apCsr[i]->seqCount++;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  break;
}


/* Opcode: NewRowid P1 P2 *
**
** Get a new integer record number (a.k.a "rowid") used as the key to a table.
** The record number is not previously used as a key in the database
** table that cursor P1 points to.  The new record number is pushed 
** onto the stack.
**
** If P2>0 then P2 is a memory cell that holds the largest previously
** generated record number.  No new record numbers are allowed to be less
** than this value.  When this value reaches its maximum, a SQLITE_FULL
** error is generated.  The P2 memory cell is updated with the generated
** record number.  This P2 mechanism is used to help implement the
** AUTOINCREMENT feature.
*/
case OP_NewRowid: {
  int i = pOp->p1;
  i64 v = 0;
  Cursor *pC;
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  if( (pC = p->apCsr[i])->pCursor==0 ){
    /* The zero initialization above is all that is needed */
  }else{
    /* The next rowid or record number (different terms for the same
    ** thing) is obtained in a two-step algorithm.
    **
    ** First we attempt to find the largest existing rowid and add one
    ** to that.  But if the largest existing rowid is already the maximum
    ** positive integer, we have to fall through to the second
    ** probabilistic algorithm
    **
    ** The second algorithm is to select a rowid at random and see if
    ** it already exists in the table.  If it does not exist, we have
    ** succeeded.  If the random rowid does exist, we select a new one
    ** and try again, up to 1000 times.
    **
    ** For a table with less than 2 billion entries, the probability
    ** of not finding a unused rowid is about 1.0e-300.  This is a 
    ** non-zero probability, but it is still vanishingly small and should
    ** never cause a problem.  You are much, much more likely to have a
    ** hardware failure than for this algorithm to fail.
    **
    ** The analysis in the previous paragraph assumes that you have a good
    ** source of random numbers.  Is a library function like lrand48()
    ** good enough?  Maybe. Maybe not. It's hard to know whether there
    ** might be subtle bugs is some implementations of lrand48() that
    ** could cause problems. To avoid uncertainty, SQLite uses its own 
    ** random number generator based on the RC4 algorithm.
    **
    ** To promote locality of reference for repetitive inserts, the
    ** first few attempts at chosing a random rowid pick values just a little
    ** larger than the previous rowid.  This has been shown experimentally
    ** to double the speed of the COPY operation.
    */
    int res, rx=SQLITE_OK, cnt;
    i64 x;
    cnt = 0;
    if( (sqlite3BtreeFlags(pC->pCursor)&(BTREE_INTKEY|BTREE_ZERODATA)) !=
          BTREE_INTKEY ){
      rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
    assert( (sqlite3BtreeFlags(pC->pCursor) & BTREE_INTKEY)!=0 );
    assert( (sqlite3BtreeFlags(pC->pCursor) & BTREE_ZERODATA)==0 );

#ifdef SQLITE_32BIT_ROWID
#   define MAX_ROWID 0x7fffffff
#else
    /* Some compilers complain about constants of the form 0x7fffffffffffffff.
    ** Others complain about 0x7ffffffffffffffffLL.  The following macro seems
    ** to provide the constant while making all compilers happy.
    */
#   define MAX_ROWID  ( (((u64)0x7fffffff)<<32) | (u64)0xffffffff )
#endif

    if( !pC->useRandomRowid ){
      if( pC->nextRowidValid ){
        v = pC->nextRowid;
      }else{
        rc = sqlite3BtreeLast(pC->pCursor, &res);
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
          goto abort_due_to_error;
        }
        if( res ){
          v = 1;
        }else{
          sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pC->pCursor, &v);
          v = keyToInt(v);
          if( v==MAX_ROWID ){
            pC->useRandomRowid = 1;
          }else{
            v++;
          }
        }
      }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINCREMENT
      if( pOp->p2 ){
        Mem *pMem;
        assert( pOp->p2>0 && pOp->p2<p->nMem );  /* P2 is a valid memory cell */
        pMem = &p->aMem[pOp->p2];
        sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pMem);
        assert( (pMem->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 );  /* mem(P2) holds an integer */
        if( pMem->i==MAX_ROWID || pC->useRandomRowid ){
          rc = SQLITE_FULL;
          goto abort_due_to_error;
        }
        if( v<pMem->i+1 ){
          v = pMem->i + 1;
        }
        pMem->i = v;
      }
#endif

      if( v<MAX_ROWID ){
        pC->nextRowidValid = 1;
        pC->nextRowid = v+1;
      }else{
        pC->nextRowidValid = 0;
      }
    }
    if( pC->useRandomRowid ){
      assert( pOp->p2==0 );  /* SQLITE_FULL must have occurred prior to this */
      v = db->priorNewRowid;
      cnt = 0;
      do{
        if( v==0 || cnt>2 ){
          sqlite3Randomness(sizeof(v), &v);
          if( cnt<5 ) v &= 0xffffff;
        }else{
          unsigned char r;
          sqlite3Randomness(1, &r);
          v += r + 1;
        }
        if( v==0 ) continue;
        x = intToKey(v);
        rx = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(pC->pCursor, 0, (u64)x, &res);
        cnt++;
      }while( cnt<1000 && rx==SQLITE_OK && res==0 );
      db->priorNewRowid = v;
      if( rx==SQLITE_OK && res==0 ){
        rc = SQLITE_FULL;
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
    }
    pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  }
  pTos++;
  pTos->i = v;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Insert P1 P2 P3
**
** Write an entry into the table of cursor P1.  A new entry is
** created if it doesn't already exist or the data for an existing
** entry is overwritten.  The data is the value on the top of the
** stack.  The key is the next value down on the stack.  The key must
** be an integer.  The stack is popped twice by this instruction.
**
** If the OPFLAG_NCHANGE flag of P2 is set, then the row change count is
** incremented (otherwise not).  If the OPFLAG_LASTROWID flag of P2 is set,
** then rowid is stored for subsequent return by the
** sqlite3_last_insert_rowid() function (otherwise it's unmodified).
**
** This instruction only works on tables.  The equivalent instruction
** for indices is OP_IdxInsert.
*/
case OP_Insert: {         /* no-push */
  Mem *pNos = &pTos[-1];
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  assert( pNos>=p->aStack );
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  if( ((pC = p->apCsr[i])->pCursor!=0 || pC->pseudoTable) ){
    i64 iKey;   /* The integer ROWID or key for the record to be inserted */

    assert( pNos->flags & MEM_Int );
    assert( pC->isTable );
    iKey = intToKey(pNos->i);

    if( pOp->p2 & OPFLAG_NCHANGE ) p->nChange++;
    if( pOp->p2 & OPFLAG_LASTROWID ) db->lastRowid = pNos->i;
    if( pC->nextRowidValid && pNos->i>=pC->nextRowid ){
      pC->nextRowidValid = 0;
    }
    if( pTos->flags & MEM_Null ){
      pTos->z = 0;
      pTos->n = 0;
    }else{
      assert( pTos->flags & (MEM_Blob|MEM_Str) );
    }
    if( pC->pseudoTable ){
      sqliteFree(pC->pData);
      pC->iKey = iKey;
      pC->nData = pTos->n;
      if( pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn ){
        pC->pData = pTos->z;
        pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
      }else{
        pC->pData = sqliteMallocRaw( pC->nData+2 );
        if( !pC->pData ) goto no_mem;
        memcpy(pC->pData, pTos->z, pC->nData);
        pC->pData[pC->nData] = 0;
        pC->pData[pC->nData+1] = 0;
      }
      pC->nullRow = 0;
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3BtreeInsert(pC->pCursor, 0, iKey, pTos->z, pTos->n);
    }
    
    pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;

    /* Invoke the update-hook if required. */
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && db->xUpdateCallback && pOp->p3 ){
      const char *zDb = db->aDb[pC->iDb].zName;
      const char *zTbl = pOp->p3;
      int op = ((pOp->p2 & OPFLAG_ISUPDATE) ? SQLITE_UPDATE : SQLITE_INSERT);
      assert( pC->isTable );
      db->xUpdateCallback(db->pUpdateArg, op, zDb, zTbl, iKey);
      assert( pC->iDb>=0 );
    }
  }
  popStack(&pTos, 2);

  break;
}

/* Opcode: Delete P1 P2 P3
**
** Delete the record at which the P1 cursor is currently pointing.
**
** The cursor will be left pointing at either the next or the previous
** record in the table. If it is left pointing at the next record, then
** the next Next instruction will be a no-op.  Hence it is OK to delete
** a record from within an Next loop.
**
** If the OPFLAG_NCHANGE flag of P2 is set, then the row change count is
** incremented (otherwise not).
**
** If P1 is a pseudo-table, then this instruction is a no-op.
*/
case OP_Delete: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[i];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( pC->pCursor!=0 ){
    i64 iKey;

    /* If the update-hook will be invoked, set iKey to the rowid of the
    ** row being deleted.
    */
    if( db->xUpdateCallback && pOp->p3 ){
      assert( pC->isTable );
      if( pC->rowidIsValid ){
        iKey = pC->lastRowid;
      }else{
        rc = sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pC->pCursor, &iKey);
        if( rc ){
          goto abort_due_to_error;
        }
        iKey = keyToInt(iKey);
      }
    }

    rc = sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(pC);
    if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
    rc = sqlite3BtreeDelete(pC->pCursor);
    pC->nextRowidValid = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;

    /* Invoke the update-hook if required. */
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && db->xUpdateCallback && pOp->p3 ){
      const char *zDb = db->aDb[pC->iDb].zName;
      const char *zTbl = pOp->p3;
      db->xUpdateCallback(db->pUpdateArg, SQLITE_DELETE, zDb, zTbl, iKey);
      assert( pC->iDb>=0 );
    }
  }
  if( pOp->p2 & OPFLAG_NCHANGE ) p->nChange++;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ResetCount P1 * *
**
** This opcode resets the VMs internal change counter to 0. If P1 is true,
** then the value of the change counter is copied to the database handle
** change counter (returned by subsequent calls to sqlite3_changes())
** before it is reset. This is used by trigger programs.
*/
case OP_ResetCount: {        /* no-push */
  if( pOp->p1 ){
    sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(db, p->nChange);
  }
  p->nChange = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: RowData P1 * *
**
** Push onto the stack the complete row data for cursor P1.
** There is no interpretation of the data.  It is just copied
** onto the stack exactly as it is found in the database file.
**
** If the cursor is not pointing to a valid row, a NULL is pushed
** onto the stack.
*/
/* Opcode: RowKey P1 * *
**
** Push onto the stack the complete row key for cursor P1.
** There is no interpretation of the key.  It is just copied
** onto the stack exactly as it is found in the database file.
**
** If the cursor is not pointing to a valid row, a NULL is pushed
** onto the stack.
*/
case OP_RowKey:
case OP_RowData: {
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  u32 n;

  /* Note that RowKey and RowData are really exactly the same instruction */
  pTos++;
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[i];
  assert( pC->isTable || pOp->opcode==OP_RowKey );
  assert( pC->isIndex || pOp->opcode==OP_RowData );
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( pC->nullRow ){
    pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  }else if( pC->pCursor!=0 ){
    BtCursor *pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
    rc = sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(pC);
    if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
    if( pC->nullRow ){
      pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
      break;
    }else if( pC->isIndex ){
      i64 n64;
      assert( !pC->isTable );
      sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pCrsr, &n64);
      n = n64;
    }else{
      sqlite3BtreeDataSize(pCrsr, &n);
    }
    pTos->n = n;
    if( n<=NBFS ){
      pTos->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Short;
      pTos->z = pTos->zShort;
    }else{
      char *z = sqliteMallocRaw( n );
      if( z==0 ) goto no_mem;
      pTos->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Dyn;
      pTos->xDel = 0;
      pTos->z = z;
    }
    if( pC->isIndex ){
      sqlite3BtreeKey(pCrsr, 0, n, pTos->z);
    }else{
      sqlite3BtreeData(pCrsr, 0, n, pTos->z);
    }
  }else if( pC->pseudoTable ){
    pTos->n = pC->nData;
    pTos->z = pC->pData;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Blob|MEM_Ephem;
  }else{
    pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  }
  pTos->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;  /* In case the blob is ever cast to text */
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Rowid P1 * *
**
** Push onto the stack an integer which is the key of the table entry that
** P1 is currently point to.
*/
case OP_Rowid: {
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  i64 v;

  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[i];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  rc = sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(pC);
  if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
  pTos++;
  if( pC->rowidIsValid ){
    v = pC->lastRowid;
  }else if( pC->pseudoTable ){
    v = keyToInt(pC->iKey);
  }else if( pC->nullRow || pC->pCursor==0 ){
    pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
    break;
  }else{
    assert( pC->pCursor!=0 );
    sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pC->pCursor, &v);
    v = keyToInt(v);
  }
  pTos->i = v;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: NullRow P1 * *
**
** Move the cursor P1 to a null row.  Any OP_Column operations
** that occur while the cursor is on the null row will always push 
** a NULL onto the stack.
*/
case OP_NullRow: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;

  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[i];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  pC->nullRow = 1;
  pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Last P1 P2 *
**
** The next use of the Rowid or Column or Next instruction for P1 
** will refer to the last entry in the database table or index.
** If the table or index is empty and P2>0, then jump immediately to P2.
** If P2 is 0 or if the table or index is not empty, fall through
** to the following instruction.
*/
case OP_Last: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;

  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[i];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( (pCrsr = pC->pCursor)!=0 ){
    int res;
    rc = sqlite3BtreeLast(pCrsr, &res);
    pC->nullRow = res;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
    if( res && pOp->p2>0 ){
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
    }
  }else{
    pC->nullRow = 0;
  }
  break;
}


/* Opcode: Sort P1 P2 *
**
** This opcode does exactly the same thing as OP_Rewind except that
** it increments an undocumented global variable used for testing.
**
** Sorting is accomplished by writing records into a sorting index,
** then rewinding that index and playing it back from beginning to
** end.  We use the OP_Sort opcode instead of OP_Rewind to do the
** rewinding so that the global variable will be incremented and
** regression tests can determine whether or not the optimizer is
** correctly optimizing out sorts.
*/
case OP_Sort: {        /* no-push */
  sqlite3_sort_count++;
  sqlite3_search_count--;
  /* Fall through into OP_Rewind */
}
/* Opcode: Rewind P1 P2 *
**
** The next use of the Rowid or Column or Next instruction for P1 
** will refer to the first entry in the database table or index.
** If the table or index is empty and P2>0, then jump immediately to P2.
** If P2 is 0 or if the table or index is not empty, fall through
** to the following instruction.
*/
case OP_Rewind: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int res;

  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[i];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( (pCrsr = pC->pCursor)!=0 ){
    rc = sqlite3BtreeFirst(pCrsr, &res);
    pC->atFirst = res==0;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  }else{
    res = 1;
  }
  pC->nullRow = res;
  if( res && pOp->p2>0 ){
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Next P1 P2 *
**
** Advance cursor P1 so that it points to the next key/data pair in its
** table or index.  If there are no more key/value pairs then fall through
** to the following instruction.  But if the cursor advance was successful,
** jump immediately to P2.
**
** See also: Prev
*/
/* Opcode: Prev P1 P2 *
**
** Back up cursor P1 so that it points to the previous key/data pair in its
** table or index.  If there is no previous key/value pairs then fall through
** to the following instruction.  But if the cursor backup was successful,
** jump immediately to P2.
*/
case OP_Prev:          /* no-push */
case OP_Next: {        /* no-push */
  Cursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;

  CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( (pCrsr = pC->pCursor)!=0 ){
    int res;
    if( pC->nullRow ){
      res = 1;
    }else{
      assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
      rc = pOp->opcode==OP_Next ? sqlite3BtreeNext(pCrsr, &res) :
                                  sqlite3BtreePrevious(pCrsr, &res);
      pC->nullRow = res;
      pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
    }
    if( res==0 ){
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
      sqlite3_search_count++;
    }
  }else{
    pC->nullRow = 1;
  }
  pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxInsert P1 * *
**
** The top of the stack holds a SQL index key made using either the
** MakeIdxRec or MakeRecord instructions.  This opcode writes that key
** into the index P1.  Data for the entry is nil.
**
** This instruction only works for indices.  The equivalent instruction
** for tables is OP_Insert.
*/
case OP_IdxInsert: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Blob );
  assert( pOp->p2==0 );
  if( (pCrsr = (pC = p->apCsr[i])->pCursor)!=0 ){
    int nKey = pTos->n;
    const char *zKey = pTos->z;
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    rc = sqlite3BtreeInsert(pCrsr, zKey, nKey, "", 0);
    assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxDelete P1 * *
**
** The top of the stack is an index key built using the either the
** MakeIdxRec or MakeRecord opcodes.
** This opcode removes that entry from the index.
*/
case OP_IdxDelete: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Blob );
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  if( (pCrsr = (pC = p->apCsr[i])->pCursor)!=0 ){
    int res;
    rc = sqlite3BtreeMoveto(pCrsr, pTos->z, pTos->n, &res);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && res==0 ){
      rc = sqlite3BtreeDelete(pCrsr);
    }
    assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxRowid P1 * *
**
** Push onto the stack an integer which is the last entry in the record at
** the end of the index key pointed to by cursor P1.  This integer should be
** the rowid of the table entry to which this index entry points.
**
** See also: Rowid, MakeIdxRec.
*/
case OP_IdxRowid: {
  int i = pOp->p1;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  Cursor *pC;

  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  pTos++;
  pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  if( (pCrsr = (pC = p->apCsr[i])->pCursor)!=0 ){
    i64 rowid;

    assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    if( pC->nullRow ){
      pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(pCrsr, &rowid);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
      pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
      pTos->i = rowid;
    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxGT P1 P2 *
**
** The top of the stack is an index entry that omits the ROWID.  Compare
** the top of stack against the index that P1 is currently pointing to.
** Ignore the ROWID on the P1 index.
**
** The top of the stack might have fewer columns that P1.
**
** If the P1 index entry is greater than the top of the stack
** then jump to P2.  Otherwise fall through to the next instruction.
** In either case, the stack is popped once.
*/
/* Opcode: IdxGE P1 P2 P3
**
** The top of the stack is an index entry that omits the ROWID.  Compare
** the top of stack against the index that P1 is currently pointing to.
** Ignore the ROWID on the P1 index.
**
** If the P1 index entry is greater than or equal to the top of the stack
** then jump to P2.  Otherwise fall through to the next instruction.
** In either case, the stack is popped once.
**
** If P3 is the "+" string (or any other non-NULL string) then the
** index taken from the top of the stack is temporarily increased by
** an epsilon prior to the comparison.  This make the opcode work
** like IdxGT except that if the key from the stack is a prefix of
** the key in the cursor, the result is false whereas it would be
** true with IdxGT.
*/
/* Opcode: IdxLT P1 P2 P3
**
** The top of the stack is an index entry that omits the ROWID.  Compare
** the top of stack against the index that P1 is currently pointing to.
** Ignore the ROWID on the P1 index.
**
** If the P1 index entry is less than  the top of the stack
** then jump to P2.  Otherwise fall through to the next instruction.
** In either case, the stack is popped once.
**
** If P3 is the "+" string (or any other non-NULL string) then the
** index taken from the top of the stack is temporarily increased by
** an epsilon prior to the comparison.  This makes the opcode work
** like IdxLE.
*/
case OP_IdxLT:          /* no-push */
case OP_IdxGT:          /* no-push */
case OP_IdxGE: {        /* no-push */
  int i= pOp->p1;
  Cursor *pC;

  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[i]!=0 );
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  if( (pC = p->apCsr[i])->pCursor!=0 ){
    int res;
 
    assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Blob );  /* Created using OP_Make*Key */
    Stringify(pTos, encoding);
    assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
    *pC->pIncrKey = pOp->p3!=0;
    assert( pOp->p3==0 || pOp->opcode!=OP_IdxGT );
    rc = sqlite3VdbeIdxKeyCompare(pC, pTos->n, (u8*)pTos->z, &res);
    *pC->pIncrKey = 0;
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      break;
    }
    if( pOp->opcode==OP_IdxLT ){
      res = -res;
    }else if( pOp->opcode==OP_IdxGE ){
      res++;
    }
    if( res>0 ){
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1 ;
    }
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxIsNull P1 P2 *
**
** The top of the stack contains an index entry such as might be generated
** by the MakeIdxRec opcode.  This routine looks at the first P1 fields of
** that key.  If any of the first P1 fields are NULL, then a jump is made
** to address P2.  Otherwise we fall straight through.
**
** The index entry is always popped from the stack.
*/
case OP_IdxIsNull: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  int k, n;
  const char *z;
  u32 serial_type;

  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Blob );
  z = pTos->z;
  n = pTos->n;
  k = sqlite3GetVarint32((u8*)z, &serial_type);
  for(; k<n && i>0; i--){
    k += sqlite3GetVarint32((u8*)&z[k], &serial_type);
    if( serial_type==0 ){   /* Serial type 0 is a NULL */
      pc = pOp->p2-1;
      break;
    }
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Destroy P1 P2 *
**
** Delete an entire database table or index whose root page in the database
** file is given by P1.
**
** The table being destroyed is in the main database file if P2==0.  If
** P2==1 then the table to be clear is in the auxiliary database file
** that is used to store tables create using CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE.
**
** If AUTOVACUUM is enabled then it is possible that another root page
** might be moved into the newly deleted root page in order to keep all
** root pages contiguous at the beginning of the database.  The former
** value of the root page that moved - its value before the move occurred -
** is pushed onto the stack.  If no page movement was required (because
** the table being dropped was already the last one in the database) then
** a zero is pushed onto the stack.  If AUTOVACUUM is disabled
** then a zero is pushed onto the stack.
**
** See also: Clear
*/
case OP_Destroy: {
  int iMoved;
  if( db->activeVdbeCnt>1 ){
    rc = SQLITE_LOCKED;
  }else{
    assert( db->activeVdbeCnt==1 );
    rc = sqlite3BtreeDropTable(db->aDb[pOp->p2].pBt, pOp->p1, &iMoved);
    pTos++;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
    pTos->i = iMoved;
  #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOVACUUM
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && iMoved!=0 ){
      sqlite3RootPageMoved(&db->aDb[pOp->p2], iMoved, pOp->p1);
    }
  #endif
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Clear P1 P2 *
**
** Delete all contents of the database table or index whose root page
** in the database file is given by P1.  But, unlike Destroy, do not
** remove the table or index from the database file.
**
** The table being clear is in the main database file if P2==0.  If
** P2==1 then the table to be clear is in the auxiliary database file
** that is used to store tables create using CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE.
**
** See also: Destroy
*/
case OP_Clear: {        /* no-push */

  /* For consistency with the way other features of SQLite operate
  ** with a truncate, we will also skip the update callback.
  */
#if 0
  Btree *pBt = db->aDb[pOp->p2].pBt;
  if( db->xUpdateCallback && pOp->p3 ){
    const char *zDb = db->aDb[pOp->p2].zName;
    const char *zTbl = pOp->p3;
    BtCursor *pCur = 0;
    int fin = 0;

    rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pBt, pOp->p1, 0, 0, 0, &pCur);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
    for(
      rc=sqlite3BtreeFirst(pCur, &fin); 
      rc==SQLITE_OK && !fin; 
      rc=sqlite3BtreeNext(pCur, &fin)
    ){
      i64 iKey;
      rc = sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pCur, &iKey);
      if( rc ){
        break;
      }
      iKey = keyToInt(iKey);
      db->xUpdateCallback(db->pUpdateArg, SQLITE_DELETE, zDb, zTbl, iKey);
    }
    sqlite3BtreeCloseCursor(pCur);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
  }
#endif
  rc = sqlite3BtreeClearTable(db->aDb[pOp->p2].pBt, pOp->p1);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: CreateTable P1 * *
**
** Allocate a new table in the main database file if P2==0 or in the
** auxiliary database file if P2==1.  Push the page number
** for the root page of the new table onto the stack.
**
** The difference between a table and an index is this:  A table must
** have a 4-byte integer key and can have arbitrary data.  An index
** has an arbitrary key but no data.
**
** See also: CreateIndex
*/
/* Opcode: CreateIndex P1 * *
**
** Allocate a new index in the main database file if P2==0 or in the
** auxiliary database file if P2==1.  Push the page number of the
** root page of the new index onto the stack.
**
** See documentation on OP_CreateTable for additional information.
*/
case OP_CreateIndex:
case OP_CreateTable: {
  int pgno;
  int flags;
  Db *pDb;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<db->nDb );
  pDb = &db->aDb[pOp->p1];
  assert( pDb->pBt!=0 );
  if( pOp->opcode==OP_CreateTable ){
    /* flags = BTREE_INTKEY; */
    flags = BTREE_LEAFDATA|BTREE_INTKEY;
  }else{
    flags = BTREE_ZERODATA;
  }
  rc = sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(pDb->pBt, &pgno, flags);
  pTos++;
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    pTos->i = pgno;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  }else{
    pTos->flags = MEM_Null;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ParseSchema P1 * P3
**
** Read and parse all entries from the SQLITE_MASTER table of database P1
** that match the WHERE clause P3.
**
** This opcode invokes the parser to create a new virtual machine,
** then runs the new virtual machine.  It is thus a reentrant opcode.
*/
case OP_ParseSchema: {        /* no-push */
  char *zSql;
  int iDb = pOp->p1;
  const char *zMaster;
  InitData initData;

  assert( iDb>=0 && iDb<db->nDb );
  if( !DbHasProperty(db, iDb, DB_SchemaLoaded) ) break;
  zMaster = SCHEMA_TABLE(iDb);
  initData.db = db;
  initData.pzErrMsg = &p->zErrMsg;
  zSql = sqlite3MPrintf(
     "SELECT name, rootpage, sql, %d FROM '%q'.%s WHERE %s",
     pOp->p1, db->aDb[iDb].zName, zMaster, pOp->p3);
  if( zSql==0 ) goto no_mem;
  sqlite3SafetyOff(db);
  assert( db->init.busy==0 );
  db->init.busy = 1;
  assert( !sqlite3MallocFailed() );
  rc = sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, sqlite3InitCallback, &initData, 0);
  sqliteFree(zSql);
  db->init.busy = 0;
  sqlite3SafetyOn(db);
  if( rc==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
    sqlite3FailedMalloc();
    goto no_mem;
  }
  break;  
}

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_ANALYZE) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_PARSER)
/* Opcode: LoadAnalysis P1 * *
**
** Read the sqlite_stat1 table for database P1 and load the content
** of that table into the internal index hash table.  This will cause
** the analysis to be used when preparing all subsequent queries.
*/
case OP_LoadAnalysis: {        /* no-push */
  int iDb = pOp->p1;
  assert( iDb>=0 && iDb<db->nDb );
  sqlite3AnalysisLoad(db, iDb);
  break;  
}
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_ANALYZE) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_PARSER)  */

/* Opcode: DropTable P1 * P3
**
** Remove the internal (in-memory) data structures that describe
** the table named P3 in database P1.  This is called after a table
** is dropped in order to keep the internal representation of the
** schema consistent with what is on disk.
*/
case OP_DropTable: {        /* no-push */
  sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTable(db, pOp->p1, pOp->p3);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: DropIndex P1 * P3
**
** Remove the internal (in-memory) data structures that describe
** the index named P3 in database P1.  This is called after an index
** is dropped in order to keep the internal representation of the
** schema consistent with what is on disk.
*/
case OP_DropIndex: {        /* no-push */
  sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteIndex(db, pOp->p1, pOp->p3);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: DropTrigger P1 * P3
**
** Remove the internal (in-memory) data structures that describe
** the trigger named P3 in database P1.  This is called after a trigger
** is dropped in order to keep the internal representation of the
** schema consistent with what is on disk.
*/
case OP_DropTrigger: {        /* no-push */
  sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(db, pOp->p1, pOp->p3);
  break;
}


#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK
/* Opcode: IntegrityCk * P2 *
**
** Do an analysis of the currently open database.  Push onto the
** stack the text of an error message describing any problems.
** If there are no errors, push a "ok" onto the stack.
**
** The root page numbers of all tables in the database are integer
** values on the stack.  This opcode pulls as many integers as it
** can off of the stack and uses those numbers as the root pages.
**
** If P2 is not zero, the check is done on the auxiliary database
** file, not the main database file.
**
** This opcode is used for testing purposes only.
*/
case OP_IntegrityCk: {
  int nRoot;
  int *aRoot;
  int j;
  char *z;

  for(nRoot=0; &pTos[-nRoot]>=p->aStack; nRoot++){
    if( (pTos[-nRoot].flags & MEM_Int)==0 ) break;
  }
  assert( nRoot>0 );
  aRoot = sqliteMallocRaw( sizeof(int*)*(nRoot+1) );
  if( aRoot==0 ) goto no_mem;
  for(j=0; j<nRoot; j++){
    Mem *pMem = &pTos[-j];
    aRoot[j] = pMem->i;
  }
  aRoot[j] = 0;
  popStack(&pTos, nRoot);
  pTos++;
  z = sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(db->aDb[pOp->p2].pBt, aRoot, nRoot);
  if( z==0 || z[0]==0 ){
    if( z ) sqliteFree(z);
    pTos->z = "ok";
    pTos->n = 2;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Str | MEM_Static | MEM_Term;
  }else{
    pTos->z = z;
    pTos->n = strlen(z);
    pTos->flags = MEM_Str | MEM_Dyn | MEM_Term;
    pTos->xDel = 0;
  }
  pTos->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;
  sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pTos, encoding);
  sqliteFree(aRoot);
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */

/* Opcode: FifoWrite * * *
**
** Write the integer on the top of the stack
** into the Fifo.
*/
case OP_FifoWrite: {        /* no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  sqlite3VdbeFifoPush(&p->sFifo, pTos->i);
  assert( (pTos->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: FifoRead * P2 *
**
** Attempt to read a single integer from the Fifo
** and push it onto the stack.  If the Fifo is empty
** push nothing but instead jump to P2.
*/
case OP_FifoRead: {
  i64 v;
  CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT;
  if( sqlite3VdbeFifoPop(&p->sFifo, &v)==SQLITE_DONE ){
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }else{
    pTos++;
    pTos->i = v;
    pTos->flags = MEM_Int;
  }
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
/* Opcode: ContextPush * * * 
**
** Save the current Vdbe context such that it can be restored by a ContextPop
** opcode. The context stores the last insert row id, the last statement change
** count, and the current statement change count.
*/
case OP_ContextPush: {        /* no-push */
  int i = p->contextStackTop++;
  Context *pContext;

  assert( i>=0 );
  /* FIX ME: This should be allocated as part of the vdbe at compile-time */
  if( i>=p->contextStackDepth ){
    p->contextStackDepth = i+1;
    sqliteReallocOrFree((void**)&p->contextStack, sizeof(Context)*(i+1));
    if( p->contextStack==0 ) goto no_mem;
  }
  pContext = &p->contextStack[i];
  pContext->lastRowid = db->lastRowid;
  pContext->nChange = p->nChange;
  pContext->sFifo = p->sFifo;
  sqlite3VdbeFifoInit(&p->sFifo);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ContextPop * * * 
**
** Restore the Vdbe context to the state it was in when contextPush was last
** executed. The context stores the last insert row id, the last statement
** change count, and the current statement change count.
*/
case OP_ContextPop: {        /* no-push */
  Context *pContext = &p->contextStack[--p->contextStackTop];
  assert( p->contextStackTop>=0 );
  db->lastRowid = pContext->lastRowid;
  p->nChange = pContext->nChange;
  sqlite3VdbeFifoClear(&p->sFifo);
  p->sFifo = pContext->sFifo;
  break;
}
#endif /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER */

/* Opcode: MemStore P1 P2 *
**
** Write the top of the stack into memory location P1.
** P1 should be a small integer since space is allocated
** for all memory locations between 0 and P1 inclusive.
**
** After the data is stored in the memory location, the
** stack is popped once if P2 is 1.  If P2 is zero, then
** the original data remains on the stack.
*/
case OP_MemStore: {        /* no-push */
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nMem );
  rc = sqlite3VdbeMemMove(&p->aMem[pOp->p1], pTos);
  pTos--;

  /* If P2 is 0 then fall thru to the next opcode, OP_MemLoad, that will
  ** restore the top of the stack to its original value.
  */
  if( pOp->p2 ){
    break;
  }
}
/* Opcode: MemLoad P1 * *
**
** Push a copy of the value in memory location P1 onto the stack.
**
** If the value is a string, then the value pushed is a pointer to
** the string that is stored in the memory location.  If the memory
** location is subsequently changed (using OP_MemStore) then the
** value pushed onto the stack will change too.
*/
case OP_MemLoad: {
  int i = pOp->p1;
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nMem );
  pTos++;
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pTos, &p->aMem[i], MEM_Ephem);
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINCREMENT
/* Opcode: MemMax P1 * *
**
** Set the value of memory cell P1 to the maximum of its current value
** and the value on the top of the stack.  The stack is unchanged.
**
** This instruction throws an error if the memory cell is not initially
** an integer.
*/
case OP_MemMax: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Mem *pMem;
  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nMem );
  pMem = &p->aMem[i];
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pMem);
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pTos);
  if( pMem->i<pTos->i){
    pMem->i = pTos->i;
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINCREMENT */

/* Opcode: MemIncr P1 P2 *
**
** Increment the integer valued memory cell P2 by the value in P1.
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a memory cell that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_MemIncr: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p2;
  Mem *pMem;
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nMem );
  pMem = &p->aMem[i];
  assert( pMem->flags==MEM_Int );
  pMem->i += pOp->p1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IfMemPos P1 P2 *
**
** If the value of memory cell P1 is 1 or greater, jump to P2.
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a memory cell that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfMemPos: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Mem *pMem;
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nMem );
  pMem = &p->aMem[i];
  assert( pMem->flags==MEM_Int );
  if( pMem->i>0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IfMemNeg P1 P2 *
**
** If the value of memory cell P1 is less than zero, jump to P2. 
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a memory cell that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfMemNeg: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Mem *pMem;
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nMem );
  pMem = &p->aMem[i];
  assert( pMem->flags==MEM_Int );
  if( pMem->i<0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IfMemZero P1 P2 *
**
** If the value of memory cell P1 is exactly 0, jump to P2. 
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a memory cell that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfMemZero: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  Mem *pMem;
  assert( i>=0 && i<p->nMem );
  pMem = &p->aMem[i];
  assert( pMem->flags==MEM_Int );
  if( pMem->i==0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: MemNull P1 * *
**
** Store a NULL in memory cell P1
*/
case OP_MemNull: {
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nMem );
  sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(&p->aMem[pOp->p1]);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: MemInt P1 P2 *
**
** Store the integer value P1 in memory cell P2.
*/
case OP_MemInt: {
  assert( pOp->p2>=0 && pOp->p2<p->nMem );
  sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(&p->aMem[pOp->p2], pOp->p1);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: MemMove P1 P2 *
**
** Move the content of memory cell P2 over to memory cell P1.
** Any prior content of P1 is erased.  Memory cell P2 is left
** containing a NULL.
*/
case OP_MemMove: {
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nMem );
  assert( pOp->p2>=0 && pOp->p2<p->nMem );
  rc = sqlite3VdbeMemMove(&p->aMem[pOp->p1], &p->aMem[pOp->p2]);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: AggStep P1 P2 P3
**
** Execute the step function for an aggregate.  The
** function has P2 arguments.  P3 is a pointer to the FuncDef
** structure that specifies the function.  Use memory location
** P1 as the accumulator.
**
** The P2 arguments are popped from the stack.
*/
case OP_AggStep: {        /* no-push */
  int n = pOp->p2;
  int i;
  Mem *pMem, *pRec;
  sqlite3_context ctx;
  sqlite3_value **apVal;

  assert( n>=0 );
  pRec = &pTos[1-n];
  assert( pRec>=p->aStack );
  apVal = p->apArg;
  assert( apVal || n==0 );
  for(i=0; i<n; i++, pRec++){
    apVal[i] = pRec;
    storeTypeInfo(pRec, encoding);
  }
  ctx.pFunc = (FuncDef*)pOp->p3;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nMem );
  ctx.pMem = pMem = &p->aMem[pOp->p1];
  pMem->n++;
  ctx.s.flags = MEM_Null;
  ctx.s.z = 0;
  ctx.s.xDel = 0;
  ctx.isError = 0;
  ctx.pColl = 0;
  if( ctx.pFunc->needCollSeq ){
    assert( pOp>p->aOp );
    assert( pOp[-1].p3type==P3_COLLSEQ );
    assert( pOp[-1].opcode==OP_CollSeq );
    ctx.pColl = (CollSeq *)pOp[-1].p3;
  }
  (ctx.pFunc->xStep)(&ctx, n, apVal);
  popStack(&pTos, n);
  if( ctx.isError ){
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, sqlite3_value_text(&ctx.s), (char*)0);
    rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
  }
  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(&ctx.s);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: AggFinal P1 P2 P3
**
** Execute the finalizer function for an aggregate.  P1 is
** the memory location that is the accumulator for the aggregate.
**
** P2 is the number of arguments that the step function takes and
** P3 is a pointer to the FuncDef for this function.  The P2
** argument is not used by this opcode.  It is only there to disambiguate
** functions that can take varying numbers of arguments.  The
** P3 argument is only needed for the degenerate case where
** the step function was not previously called.
*/
case OP_AggFinal: {        /* no-push */
  Mem *pMem;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nMem );
  pMem = &p->aMem[pOp->p1];
  assert( (pMem->flags & ~(MEM_Null|MEM_Agg))==0 );
  rc = sqlite3VdbeMemFinalize(pMem, (FuncDef*)pOp->p3);
  if( rc==SQLITE_ERROR ){
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, sqlite3_value_text(pMem), (char*)0);
  }
  break;
}


/* Opcode: Vacuum * * *
**
** Vacuum the entire database.  This opcode will cause other virtual
** machines to be created and run.  It may not be called from within
** a transaction.
*/
case OP_Vacuum: {        /* no-push */
  if( sqlite3SafetyOff(db) ) goto abort_due_to_misuse; 
  rc = sqlite3RunVacuum(&p->zErrMsg, db);
  if( sqlite3SafetyOn(db) ) goto abort_due_to_misuse;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Expire P1 * *
**
** Cause precompiled statements to become expired. An expired statement
** fails with an error code of SQLITE_SCHEMA if it is ever executed 
** (via sqlite3_step()).
** 
** If P1 is 0, then all SQL statements become expired. If P1 is non-zero,
** then only the currently executing statement is affected. 
*/
case OP_Expire: {        /* no-push */
  if( !pOp->p1 ){
    sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(db);
  }else{
    p->expired = 1;
  }
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE
/* Opcode: TableLock P1 P2 P3
**
** Obtain a lock on a particular table. This instruction is only used when
** the shared-cache feature is enabled. 
**
** If P1 is not negative, then it is the index of the database
** in sqlite3.aDb[] and a read-lock is required. If P1 is negative, a 
** write-lock is required. In this case the index of the database is the 
** absolute value of P1 minus one (iDb = abs(P1) - 1;) and a write-lock is
** required. 
**
** P2 contains the root-page of the table to lock.
**
** P3 contains a pointer to the name of the table being locked. This is only
** used to generate an error message if the lock cannot be obtained.
*/
case OP_TableLock: {        /* no-push */
  int p1 = pOp->p1; 
  u8 isWriteLock = (p1<0);
  if( isWriteLock ){
    p1 = (-1*p1)-1;
  }
  rc = sqlite3BtreeLockTable(db->aDb[p1].pBt, pOp->p2, isWriteLock);
  if( rc==SQLITE_LOCKED ){
    const char *z = (const char *)pOp->p3;
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, "database table is locked: ", z, (char*)0);
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SHARED_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE */

/* An other opcode is illegal...
*/
default: {
  assert( 0 );
  break;
}

/*****************************************************************************
** The cases of the switch statement above this line should all be indented
** by 6 spaces.  But the left-most 6 spaces have been removed to improve the
** readability.  From this point on down, the normal indentation rules are
** restored.
*****************************************************************************/
    }

    /* Make sure the stack limit was not exceeded */
    assert( pTos<=pStackLimit );

#ifdef VDBE_PROFILE
    {
      long long elapse = hwtime() - start;
      pOp->cycles += elapse;
      pOp->cnt++;
#if 0
        fprintf(stdout, "%10lld ", elapse);
        sqlite3VdbePrintOp(stdout, origPc, &p->aOp[origPc]);
#endif
    }
#endif

    /* The following code adds nothing to the actual functionality
    ** of the program.  It is only here for testing and debugging.
    ** On the other hand, it does burn CPU cycles every time through
    ** the evaluator loop.  So we can leave it out when NDEBUG is defined.
    */
#ifndef NDEBUG
    /* Sanity checking on the top element of the stack */
    if( pTos>=p->aStack ){
      sqlite3VdbeMemSanity(pTos);
    }
    assert( pc>=-1 && pc<p->nOp );
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
    /* Code for tracing the vdbe stack. */
    if( p->trace && pTos>=p->aStack ){
      int i;
      fprintf(p->trace, "Stack:");
      for(i=0; i>-5 && &pTos[i]>=p->aStack; i--){
        if( pTos[i].flags & MEM_Null ){
          fprintf(p->trace, " NULL");
        }else if( (pTos[i].flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_Str))==(MEM_Int|MEM_Str) ){
          fprintf(p->trace, " si:%lld", pTos[i].i);
        }else if( pTos[i].flags & MEM_Int ){
          fprintf(p->trace, " i:%lld", pTos[i].i);
        }else if( pTos[i].flags & MEM_Real ){
          fprintf(p->trace, " r:%g", pTos[i].r);
        }else{
          char zBuf[100];
          sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(&pTos[i], zBuf);
          fprintf(p->trace, " ");
          fprintf(p->trace, "%s", zBuf);
        }
      }
      if( rc!=0 ) fprintf(p->trace," rc=%d",rc);
      fprintf(p->trace,"\n");
    }
#endif  /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
#endif  /* NDEBUG */
  }  /* The end of the for(;;) loop the loops through opcodes */

  /* If we reach this point, it means that execution is finished.
  */
vdbe_halt:
  if( rc ){
    p->rc = rc;
    rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
  }else{
    rc = SQLITE_DONE;
  }
  sqlite3VdbeHalt(p);
  p->pTos = pTos;
  return rc;

  /* Jump to here if a malloc() fails.  It's hard to get a malloc()
  ** to fail on a modern VM computer, so this code is untested.
  */
no_mem:
  sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, "out of memory", (char*)0);
  rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  goto vdbe_halt;

  /* Jump to here for an SQLITE_MISUSE error.
  */
abort_due_to_misuse:
  rc = SQLITE_MISUSE;
  /* Fall thru into abort_due_to_error */

  /* Jump to here for any other kind of fatal error.  The "rc" variable
  ** should hold the error number.
  */
abort_due_to_error:
  if( p->zErrMsg==0 ){
    if( sqlite3MallocFailed() ) rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, sqlite3ErrStr(rc), (char*)0);
  }
  goto vdbe_halt;

  /* Jump to here if the sqlite3_interrupt() API sets the interrupt
  ** flag.
  */
abort_due_to_interrupt:
  assert( db->flags & SQLITE_Interrupt );
  db->flags &= ~SQLITE_Interrupt;
  if( db->magic!=SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY ){
    rc = SQLITE_MISUSE;
  }else{
    rc = SQLITE_INTERRUPT;
  }
  p->rc = rc;
  sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, sqlite3ErrStr(rc), (char*)0);
  goto vdbe_halt;
}

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Definition at line 107 of file vdbefifo.c.

                                      {
  FifoPage *pPage, *pNextPage;
  for(pPage=pFifo->pFirst; pPage; pPage=pNextPage){
    pNextPage = pPage->pNext;
    sqliteFree(pPage);
  }
  sqlite3VdbeFifoInit(pFifo);
}

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Definition at line 40 of file vdbefifo.c.

                                     {
  memset(pFifo, 0, sizeof(*pFifo));
}

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int sqlite3VdbeFifoPop ( Fifo ,
i64  
)

Definition at line 74 of file vdbefifo.c.

                                              {
  FifoPage *pPage;
  if( pFifo->nEntry==0 ){
    return SQLITE_DONE;
  }
  assert( pFifo->nEntry>0 );
  pPage = pFifo->pFirst;
  assert( pPage!=0 );
  assert( pPage->iWrite>pPage->iRead );
  assert( pPage->iWrite<=pPage->nSlot );
  assert( pPage->iRead<pPage->nSlot );
  assert( pPage->iRead>=0 );
  *pVal = pPage->aSlot[pPage->iRead++];
  pFifo->nEntry--;
  if( pPage->iRead>=pPage->iWrite ){
    pFifo->pFirst = pPage->pNext;
    sqliteFree(pPage);
    if( pFifo->nEntry==0 ){
      assert( pFifo->pLast==pPage );
      pFifo->pLast = 0;
    }else{
      assert( pFifo->pFirst!=0 );
    }
  }else{
    assert( pFifo->nEntry>0 );
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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int sqlite3VdbeFifoPush ( Fifo ,
i64   
)

Definition at line 49 of file vdbefifo.c.

                                             {
  FifoPage *pPage;
  pPage = pFifo->pLast;
  if( pPage==0 ){
    pPage = pFifo->pLast = pFifo->pFirst = allocatePage(20);
    if( pPage==0 ){
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
  }else if( pPage->iWrite>=pPage->nSlot ){
    pPage->pNext = allocatePage(pFifo->nEntry);
    if( pPage->pNext==0 ){
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
    pPage = pFifo->pLast = pPage->pNext;
  }
  pPage->aSlot[pPage->iWrite++] = val;
  pFifo->nEntry++;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 825 of file vdbeaux.c.

                                       {
  if( pCx==0 ){
    return;
  }
  if( pCx->pCursor ){
    sqlite3BtreeCloseCursor(pCx->pCursor);
  }
  if( pCx->pBt ){
    sqlite3BtreeClose(pCx->pBt);
  }
  sqliteFree(pCx->pData);
  sqliteFree(pCx->aType);
  sqliteFree(pCx);
}

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Definition at line 1175 of file vdbeaux.c.

                            {
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;
  int i;
  int (*xFunc)(Btree *pBt) = 0;  /* Function to call on each btree backend */
  int isSpecialError;            /* Set to true if SQLITE_NOMEM or IOERR */

  /* This function contains the logic that determines if a statement or
  ** transaction will be committed or rolled back as a result of the
  ** execution of this virtual machine. 
  **
  ** Special errors:
  **
  **     If an SQLITE_NOMEM error has occured in a statement that writes to
  **     the database, then either a statement or transaction must be rolled
  **     back to ensure the tree-structures are in a consistent state. A
  **     statement transaction is rolled back if one is open, otherwise the
  **     entire transaction must be rolled back.
  **
  **     If an SQLITE_IOERR error has occured in a statement that writes to
  **     the database, then the entire transaction must be rolled back. The
  **     I/O error may have caused garbage to be written to the journal 
  **     file. Were the transaction to continue and eventually be rolled 
  **     back that garbage might end up in the database file.
  **     
  **     In both of the above cases, the Vdbe.errorAction variable is 
  **     ignored. If the sqlite3.autoCommit flag is false and a transaction
  **     is rolled back, it will be set to true.
  **
  ** Other errors:
  **
  ** No error:
  **
  */

  if( sqlite3MallocFailed() ){
    p->rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
  if( p->magic!=VDBE_MAGIC_RUN ){
    /* Already halted.  Nothing to do. */
    assert( p->magic==VDBE_MAGIC_HALT );
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }
  closeAllCursors(p);
  checkActiveVdbeCnt(db);

  /* No commit or rollback needed if the program never started */
  if( p->pc>=0 ){

    /* Check for one of the special errors - SQLITE_NOMEM or SQLITE_IOERR */
    isSpecialError = ((p->rc==SQLITE_NOMEM || p->rc==SQLITE_IOERR)?1:0);
    if( isSpecialError ){
      /* This loop does static analysis of the query to see which of the
      ** following three categories it falls into:
      **
      **     Read-only
      **     Query with statement journal
      **     Query without statement journal
      **
      ** We could do something more elegant than this static analysis (i.e.
      ** store the type of query as part of the compliation phase), but 
      ** handling malloc() or IO failure is a fairly obscure edge case so 
      ** this is probably easier. Todo: Might be an opportunity to reduce 
      ** code size a very small amount though...
      */
      int isReadOnly = 1;
      int isStatement = 0;
      assert(p->aOp || p->nOp==0);
      for(i=0; i<p->nOp; i++){ 
        switch( p->aOp[i].opcode ){
          case OP_Transaction:
            isReadOnly = 0;
            break;
          case OP_Statement:
            isStatement = 1;
            break;
        }
      }
  
      /* If the query was read-only, we need do no rollback at all. Otherwise,
      ** proceed with the special handling.
      */
      if( !isReadOnly ){
        if( p->rc==SQLITE_NOMEM && isStatement ){
          xFunc = sqlite3BtreeRollbackStmt;
        }else{
          /* We are forced to roll back the active transaction. Before doing
          ** so, abort any other statements this handle currently has active.
          */
          sqlite3AbortOtherActiveVdbes(db, p);
          sqlite3RollbackAll(db);
          db->autoCommit = 1;
        }
      }
    }
  
    /* If the auto-commit flag is set and this is the only active vdbe, then
    ** we do either a commit or rollback of the current transaction. 
    **
    ** Note: This block also runs if one of the special errors handled 
    ** above has occured. 
    */
    if( db->autoCommit && db->activeVdbeCnt==1 ){
      if( p->rc==SQLITE_OK || (p->errorAction==OE_Fail && !isSpecialError) ){
       /* The auto-commit flag is true, and the vdbe program was 
        ** successful or hit an 'OR FAIL' constraint. This means a commit 
        ** is required.
        */
        int rc = vdbeCommit(db);
        if( rc==SQLITE_BUSY ){
          return SQLITE_BUSY;
        }else if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
          p->rc = rc;
          sqlite3RollbackAll(db);
        }else{
          sqlite3CommitInternalChanges(db);
        }
      }else{
        sqlite3RollbackAll(db);
      }
    }else if( !xFunc ){
      if( p->rc==SQLITE_OK || p->errorAction==OE_Fail ){
        xFunc = sqlite3BtreeCommitStmt;
      }else if( p->errorAction==OE_Abort ){
        xFunc = sqlite3BtreeRollbackStmt;
      }else{
        sqlite3AbortOtherActiveVdbes(db, p);
        sqlite3RollbackAll(db);
        db->autoCommit = 1;
      }
    }
  
    /* If xFunc is not NULL, then it is one of sqlite3BtreeRollbackStmt or
    ** sqlite3BtreeCommitStmt. Call it once on each backend. If an error occurs
    ** and the return code is still SQLITE_OK, set the return code to the new
    ** error value.
    */
    assert(!xFunc ||
      xFunc==sqlite3BtreeCommitStmt ||
      xFunc==sqlite3BtreeRollbackStmt
    );
    for(i=0; xFunc && i<db->nDb; i++){ 
      int rc;
      Btree *pBt = db->aDb[i].pBt;
      if( pBt ){
        rc = xFunc(pBt);
        if( rc && (p->rc==SQLITE_OK || p->rc==SQLITE_CONSTRAINT) ){
          p->rc = rc;
          sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, 0);
        }
      }
    }
  
    /* If this was an INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE and the statement was committed, 
    ** set the change counter. 
    */
    if( p->changeCntOn && p->pc>=0 ){
      if( !xFunc || xFunc==sqlite3BtreeCommitStmt ){
        sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(db, p->nChange);
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(db, 0);
      }
      p->nChange = 0;
    }
  
    /* Rollback or commit any schema changes that occurred. */
    if( p->rc!=SQLITE_OK && db->flags&SQLITE_InternChanges ){
      sqlite3ResetInternalSchema(db, 0);
      db->flags = (db->flags | SQLITE_InternChanges);
    }
  }

  /* We have successfully halted and closed the VM.  Record this fact. */
  if( p->pc>=0 ){
    db->activeVdbeCnt--;
  }
  p->magic = VDBE_MAGIC_HALT;
  checkActiveVdbeCnt(db);

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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int sqlite3VdbeIdxKeyCompare ( Cursor ,
int  ,
const unsigned char *  ,
int  
)
int sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid ( BtCursor ,
i64  
)

Definition at line 1875 of file vdbeaux.c.

                                                   {
  i64 nCellKey;
  int rc;
  u32 szHdr;        /* Size of the header */
  u32 typeRowid;    /* Serial type of the rowid */
  u32 lenRowid;     /* Size of the rowid */
  Mem m, v;

  sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pCur, &nCellKey);
  if( nCellKey<=0 ){
    return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
  }
  rc = sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree(pCur, 0, nCellKey, 1, &m);
  if( rc ){
    return rc;
  }
  sqlite3GetVarint32((u8*)m.z, &szHdr);
  sqlite3GetVarint32((u8*)&m.z[szHdr-1], &typeRowid);
  lenRowid = sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(typeRowid);
  sqlite3VdbeSerialGet((u8*)&m.z[m.n-lenRowid], typeRowid, &v);
  *rowid = v.i;
  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(&m);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 1860 of file vdbeaux.c.

                                          {
  u32 szHdr;        /* Size of the header */
  u32 typeRowid;    /* Serial type of the rowid */

  sqlite3GetVarint32(aKey, &szHdr);
  sqlite3GetVarint32(&aKey[szHdr-1], &typeRowid);
  return sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(typeRowid);
}

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Definition at line 317 of file vdbemem.c.

                                          {
  assert( pMem->flags & MEM_Real );
  pMem->i = pMem->r;
  if( ((double)pMem->i)==pMem->r ){
    pMem->flags |= MEM_Int;
  }
}

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Definition at line 268 of file vdbemem.c.

                                  {
  int flags = pMem->flags;
  if( flags & MEM_Int ){
    return pMem->i;
  }else if( flags & MEM_Real ){
    return (i64)pMem->r;
  }else if( flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) ){
    i64 value;
    if( sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pMem, SQLITE_UTF8)
       || sqlite3VdbeMemNulTerminate(pMem) ){
      return 0;
    }
    assert( pMem->z );
    sqlite3atoi64(pMem->z, &value);
    return value;
  }else{
    return 0;
  }
}

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Definition at line 617 of file vdbeaux.c.

 {
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;
  int i;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;

  assert( p->explain );
  if( p->magic!=VDBE_MAGIC_RUN ) return SQLITE_MISUSE;
  assert( db->magic==SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY );
  assert( p->rc==SQLITE_OK || p->rc==SQLITE_BUSY );

  /* Even though this opcode does not put dynamic strings onto the
  ** the stack, they may become dynamic if the user calls
  ** sqlite3_column_text16(), causing a translation to UTF-16 encoding.
  */
  if( p->pTos==&p->aStack[4] ){
    releaseMemArray(p->aStack, 5);
  }
  p->resOnStack = 0;

  do{
    i = p->pc++;
  }while( i<p->nOp && p->explain==2 && p->aOp[i].opcode!=OP_Explain );
  if( i>=p->nOp ){
    p->rc = SQLITE_OK;
    rc = SQLITE_DONE;
  }else if( db->flags & SQLITE_Interrupt ){
    db->flags &= ~SQLITE_Interrupt;
    p->rc = SQLITE_INTERRUPT;
    rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
    sqlite3SetString(&p->zErrMsg, sqlite3ErrStr(p->rc), (char*)0);
  }else{
    Op *pOp = &p->aOp[i];
    Mem *pMem = p->aStack;
    pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
    pMem->type = SQLITE_INTEGER;
    pMem->i = i;                                /* Program counter */
    pMem++;

    pMem->flags = MEM_Static|MEM_Str|MEM_Term;
    pMem->z = sqlite3OpcodeNames[pOp->opcode];  /* Opcode */
    pMem->n = strlen(pMem->z);
    pMem->type = SQLITE_TEXT;
    pMem->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;
    pMem++;

    pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
    pMem->i = pOp->p1;                          /* P1 */
    pMem->type = SQLITE_INTEGER;
    pMem++;

    pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
    pMem->i = pOp->p2;                          /* P2 */
    pMem->type = SQLITE_INTEGER;
    pMem++;

    pMem->flags = MEM_Ephem|MEM_Str|MEM_Term;   /* P3 */
    pMem->z = displayP3(pOp, pMem->zShort, sizeof(pMem->zShort));
    pMem->n = strlen(pMem->z);
    pMem->type = SQLITE_TEXT;
    pMem->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;

    p->nResColumn = 5 - 2*(p->explain-1);
    p->pTos = pMem;
    p->rc = SQLITE_OK;
    p->resOnStack = 1;
    rc = SQLITE_ROW;
  }
  return rc;
}

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int sqlite3VdbeMemCopy ( Mem ,
const Mem  
)

Definition at line 408 of file vdbemem.c.

                                                  {
  int rc;
  if( pTo->flags & MEM_Dyn ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pTo);
  }
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pTo, pFrom, MEM_Ephem);
  if( pTo->flags & MEM_Ephem ){
    rc = sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable(pTo);
  }else{
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
  }
  return rc;
}

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Definition at line 70 of file vdbemem.c.

                                       {
  int n = pMem->n;
  u8 *z;
  if( (pMem->flags & (MEM_Ephem|MEM_Static|MEM_Short))==0 ){
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }
  assert( (pMem->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  assert( pMem->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) );
  z = sqliteMallocRaw( n+2 );
  if( z==0 ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
  pMem->flags |= MEM_Dyn|MEM_Term;
  pMem->xDel = 0;
  memcpy(z, pMem->z, n );
  z[n] = 0;
  z[n+1] = 0;
  pMem->z = (char*)z;
  pMem->flags &= ~(MEM_Ephem|MEM_Static|MEM_Short);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 210 of file vdbemem.c.

                                                     {
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  if( pFunc && pFunc->xFinalize ){
    sqlite3_context ctx;
    assert( (pMem->flags & MEM_Null)!=0 || pFunc==*(FuncDef**)&pMem->i );
    ctx.s.flags = MEM_Null;
    ctx.s.z = pMem->zShort;
    ctx.pMem = pMem;
    ctx.pFunc = pFunc;
    ctx.isError = 0;
    pFunc->xFinalize(&ctx);
    if( pMem->z && pMem->z!=pMem->zShort ){
      sqliteFree( pMem->z );
    }
    *pMem = ctx.s;
    if( pMem->flags & MEM_Short ){
      pMem->z = pMem->zShort;
    }
    if( ctx.isError ){
      rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
    }
  }
  return rc;
}

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int sqlite3VdbeMemFromBtree ( BtCursor ,
int  ,
int  ,
int  ,
Mem  
)

Definition at line 649 of file vdbemem.c.

 {
  char *zData;      /* Data from the btree layer */
  int available;    /* Number of bytes available on the local btree page */

  if( key ){
    zData = (char *)sqlite3BtreeKeyFetch(pCur, &available);
  }else{
    zData = (char *)sqlite3BtreeDataFetch(pCur, &available);
  }

  pMem->n = amt;
  if( offset+amt<=available ){
    pMem->z = &zData[offset];
    pMem->flags = MEM_Blob|MEM_Ephem;
  }else{
    int rc;
    if( amt>NBFS-2 ){
      zData = (char *)sqliteMallocRaw(amt+2);
      if( !zData ){
        return SQLITE_NOMEM;
      }
      pMem->flags = MEM_Blob|MEM_Dyn|MEM_Term;
      pMem->xDel = 0;
    }else{
      zData = &(pMem->zShort[0]);
      pMem->flags = MEM_Blob|MEM_Short|MEM_Term;
    }
    pMem->z = zData;
    pMem->enc = 0;
    pMem->type = SQLITE_BLOB;

    if( key ){
      rc = sqlite3BtreeKey(pCur, offset, amt, zData);
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3BtreeData(pCur, offset, amt, zData);
    }
    zData[amt] = 0;
    zData[amt+1] = 0;
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      if( amt>NBFS-2 ){
        assert( zData!=pMem->zShort );
        assert( pMem->flags & MEM_Dyn );
        sqliteFree(zData);
      } else {
        assert( zData==pMem->zShort );
        assert( pMem->flags & MEM_Short );
      }
      return rc;
    }
  }

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 390 of file utf.c.

                                      {
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  u8 bom = 0;

  if( pMem->n<0 || pMem->n>1 ){
    u8 b1 = *(u8 *)pMem->z;
    u8 b2 = *(((u8 *)pMem->z) + 1);
    if( b1==0xFE && b2==0xFF ){
      bom = SQLITE_UTF16BE;
    }
    if( b1==0xFF && b2==0xFE ){
      bom = SQLITE_UTF16LE;
    }
  }
  
  if( bom ){
    /* This function is called as soon as a string is stored in a Mem*,
    ** from within sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(). At that point it is not possible
    ** for the string to be stored in Mem.zShort, or for it to be stored
    ** in dynamic memory with no destructor.
    */
    assert( !(pMem->flags&MEM_Short) );
    assert( !(pMem->flags&MEM_Dyn) || pMem->xDel );
    if( pMem->flags & MEM_Dyn ){
      void (*xDel)(void*) = pMem->xDel;
      char *z = pMem->z;
      pMem->z = 0;
      pMem->xDel = 0;
      rc = sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(pMem, &z[2], pMem->n-2, bom, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
      xDel(z);
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(pMem, &pMem->z[2], pMem->n-2, bom, 
          SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
    }
  }
  return rc;
}

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Definition at line 328 of file vdbemem.c.

                                       {
  pMem->i = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pMem);
  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
  pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 98 of file vdbemem.c.

                                          {
  int n;
  u8 *z;
  if( (pMem->flags & (MEM_Ephem|MEM_Static))==0 ){
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }
  assert( (pMem->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  assert( pMem->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) );
  if( (n = pMem->n)+2<sizeof(pMem->zShort) ){
    z = (u8*)pMem->zShort;
    pMem->flags |= MEM_Short|MEM_Term;
  }else{
    z = sqliteMallocRaw( n+2 );
    if( z==0 ){
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
    pMem->flags |= MEM_Dyn|MEM_Term;
    pMem->xDel = 0;
  }
  memcpy(z, pMem->z, n );
  z[n] = 0;
  z[n+1] = 0;
  pMem->z = (char*)z;
  pMem->flags &= ~(MEM_Ephem|MEM_Static);
  assert(0==(1&(int)pMem->z));
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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int sqlite3VdbeMemMove ( Mem ,
Mem  
)

Definition at line 430 of file vdbemem.c.

                                            {
  int rc;
  if( pTo->flags & MEM_Dyn ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pTo);
  }
  memcpy(pTo, pFrom, sizeof(Mem));
  if( pFrom->flags & MEM_Short ){
    pTo->z = pTo->zShort;
  }
  pFrom->flags = MEM_Null;
  pFrom->xDel = 0;
  if( pTo->flags & MEM_Ephem ){
    rc = sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable(pTo);
  }else{
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
  }
  return rc;
}

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Definition at line 129 of file vdbemem.c.

                                         {
  /* In SQLite, a string without a nul terminator occurs when a string
  ** is loaded from disk (in this case the memory management is ephemeral),
  ** or when it is supplied by the user as a bound variable or function
  ** return value. Therefore, the memory management of the string must be
  ** either ephemeral, static or controlled by a user-supplied destructor.
  */
  assert(                         
    !(pMem->flags&MEM_Str) ||                /* it's not a string, or      */
    (pMem->flags&MEM_Term) ||                /* it's nul term. already, or */
    (pMem->flags&(MEM_Ephem|MEM_Static)) ||  /* it's static or ephem, or   */
    (pMem->flags&MEM_Dyn && pMem->xDel)      /* external management        */
  );
  if( (pMem->flags & MEM_Term)!=0 || (pMem->flags & MEM_Str)==0 ){
    return SQLITE_OK;   /* Nothing to do */
  }

  if( pMem->flags & (MEM_Static|MEM_Ephem) ){
    return sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable(pMem);
  }else{
    char *z = sqliteMalloc(pMem->n+2);
    if( !z ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    memcpy(z, pMem->z, pMem->n);
    z[pMem->n] = 0;
    z[pMem->n+1] = 0;
    pMem->xDel(pMem->z);
    pMem->xDel = 0;
    pMem->z = z;
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 350 of file vdbemem.c.

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void sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint ( Mem pMem,
char *  zBuf 
)

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Definition at line 339 of file vdbemem.c.

                                    {
  pMem->r = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pMem);
  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
  pMem->flags = MEM_Real;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 240 of file vdbemem.c.

                                  {
  if( p->flags & (MEM_Dyn|MEM_Agg) ){
    if( p->xDel ){
      if( p->flags & MEM_Agg ){
        sqlite3VdbeMemFinalize(p, *(FuncDef**)&p->i);
        assert( (p->flags & MEM_Agg)==0 );
        sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(p);
      }else{
        p->xDel((void *)p->z);
      }
    }else{
      sqliteFree(p->z);
    }
    p->z = 0;
    p->xDel = 0;
  }
}

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void sqlite3VdbeMemSetDouble ( Mem ,
double   
)

Definition at line 381 of file vdbemem.c.

                                                   {
  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
  pMem->r = val;
  pMem->flags = MEM_Real;
  pMem->type = SQLITE_FLOAT;
}

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Definition at line 370 of file vdbemem.c.

                                               {
  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
  pMem->i = val;
  pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
  pMem->type = SQLITE_INTEGER;
}

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Definition at line 359 of file vdbemem.c.

                                     {
  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
  pMem->flags = MEM_Null;
  pMem->type = SQLITE_NULL;
  pMem->n = 0;
}

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int sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr ( Mem ,
const char *  ,
int  ,
u8  ,
void(*)(void *)   
)

Definition at line 452 of file vdbemem.c.

 {
  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
  if( !z ){
    pMem->flags = MEM_Null;
    pMem->type = SQLITE_NULL;
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }

  pMem->z = (char *)z;
  if( xDel==SQLITE_STATIC ){
    pMem->flags = MEM_Static;
  }else if( xDel==SQLITE_TRANSIENT ){
    pMem->flags = MEM_Ephem;
  }else{
    pMem->flags = MEM_Dyn;
    pMem->xDel = xDel;
  }

  pMem->enc = enc;
  pMem->type = enc==0 ? SQLITE_BLOB : SQLITE_TEXT;
  pMem->n = n;

  assert( enc==0 || enc==SQLITE_UTF8 || enc==SQLITE_UTF16LE 
      || enc==SQLITE_UTF16BE );
  switch( enc ){
    case 0:
      pMem->flags |= MEM_Blob;
      pMem->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;
      break;

    case SQLITE_UTF8:
      pMem->flags |= MEM_Str;
      if( n<0 ){
        pMem->n = strlen(z);
        pMem->flags |= MEM_Term;
      }
      break;

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
    case SQLITE_UTF16LE:
    case SQLITE_UTF16BE:
      pMem->flags |= MEM_Str;
      if( pMem->n<0 ){
        pMem->n = sqlite3utf16ByteLen(pMem->z,-1);
        pMem->flags |= MEM_Term;
      }
      if( sqlite3VdbeMemHandleBom(pMem) ){
        return SQLITE_NOMEM;
      }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16 */
  }
  if( pMem->flags&MEM_Ephem ){
    return sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable(pMem);
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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Definition at line 394 of file vdbemem.c.

                                                                       {
  memcpy(pTo, pFrom, sizeof(*pFrom)-sizeof(pFrom->zShort));
  pTo->xDel = 0;
  if( pTo->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) ){
    pTo->flags &= ~(MEM_Dyn|MEM_Static|MEM_Short|MEM_Ephem);
    assert( srcType==MEM_Ephem || srcType==MEM_Static );
    pTo->flags |= srcType;
  }
}

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Definition at line 174 of file vdbemem.c.

                                               {
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  int fg = pMem->flags;
  char *z = pMem->zShort;

  assert( !(fg&(MEM_Str|MEM_Blob)) );
  assert( fg&(MEM_Int|MEM_Real) );

  /* For a Real or Integer, use sqlite3_snprintf() to produce the UTF-8
  ** string representation of the value. Then, if the required encoding
  ** is UTF-16le or UTF-16be do a translation.
  ** 
  ** FIX ME: It would be better if sqlite3_snprintf() could do UTF-16.
  */
  if( fg & MEM_Int ){
    sqlite3_snprintf(NBFS, z, "%lld", pMem->i);
  }else{
    assert( fg & MEM_Real );
    sqlite3_snprintf(NBFS, z, "%!.15g", pMem->r);
  }
  pMem->n = strlen(z);
  pMem->z = z;
  pMem->enc = SQLITE_UTF8;
  pMem->flags |= MEM_Str | MEM_Short | MEM_Term;
  sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pMem, enc);
  return rc;
}

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Definition at line 241 of file utf.c.

                                                     {
  unsigned char zShort[NBFS]; /* Temporary short output buffer */
  int len;                    /* Maximum length of output string in bytes */
  unsigned char *zOut;                  /* Output buffer */
  unsigned char *zIn;                   /* Input iterator */
  unsigned char *zTerm;                 /* End of input */
  unsigned char *z;                     /* Output iterator */
  int c;

  assert( pMem->flags&MEM_Str );
  assert( pMem->enc!=desiredEnc );
  assert( pMem->enc!=0 );
  assert( pMem->n>=0 );

#if defined(TRANSLATE_TRACE) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
  {
    char zBuf[100];
    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(pMem, zBuf);
    fprintf(stderr, "INPUT:  %s\n", zBuf);
  }
#endif

  /* If the translation is between UTF-16 little and big endian, then 
  ** all that is required is to swap the byte order. This case is handled
  ** differently from the others.
  */
  if( pMem->enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 && desiredEnc!=SQLITE_UTF8 ){
    u8 temp;
    int rc;
    rc = sqlite3VdbeMemMakeWriteable(pMem);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      assert( rc==SQLITE_NOMEM );
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
    zIn = (u8*)pMem->z;
    zTerm = &zIn[pMem->n];
    while( zIn<zTerm ){
      temp = *zIn;
      *zIn = *(zIn+1);
      zIn++;
      *zIn++ = temp;
    }
    pMem->enc = desiredEnc;
    goto translate_out;
  }

  /* Set len to the maximum number of bytes required in the output buffer. */
  if( desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF8 ){
    /* When converting from UTF-16, the maximum growth results from
    ** translating a 2-byte character to a 4-byte UTF-8 character.
    ** A single byte is required for the output string
    ** nul-terminator.
    */
    len = pMem->n * 2 + 1;
  }else{
    /* When converting from UTF-8 to UTF-16 the maximum growth is caused
    ** when a 1-byte UTF-8 character is translated into a 2-byte UTF-16
    ** character. Two bytes are required in the output buffer for the
    ** nul-terminator.
    */
    len = pMem->n * 2 + 2;
  }

  /* Set zIn to point at the start of the input buffer and zTerm to point 1
  ** byte past the end.
  **
  ** Variable zOut is set to point at the output buffer. This may be space
  ** obtained from malloc(), or Mem.zShort, if it large enough and not in
  ** use, or the zShort array on the stack (see above).
  */
  zIn = (u8*)pMem->z;
  zTerm = &zIn[pMem->n];
  if( len>NBFS ){
    zOut = sqliteMallocRaw(len);
    if( !zOut ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }else{
    zOut = zShort;
  }
  z = zOut;

  if( pMem->enc==SQLITE_UTF8 ){
    if( desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF16LE ){
      /* UTF-8 -> UTF-16 Little-endian */
      while( zIn<zTerm ){
        READ_UTF8(zIn, c); 
        WRITE_UTF16LE(z, c);
      }
    }else{
      assert( desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF16BE );
      /* UTF-8 -> UTF-16 Big-endian */
      while( zIn<zTerm ){
        READ_UTF8(zIn, c); 
        WRITE_UTF16BE(z, c);
      }
    }
    pMem->n = z - zOut;
    *z++ = 0;
  }else{
    assert( desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF8 );
    if( pMem->enc==SQLITE_UTF16LE ){
      /* UTF-16 Little-endian -> UTF-8 */
      while( zIn<zTerm ){
        READ_UTF16LE(zIn, c); 
        WRITE_UTF8(z, c);
      }
    }else{
      /* UTF-16 Little-endian -> UTF-8 */
      while( zIn<zTerm ){
        READ_UTF16BE(zIn, c); 
        WRITE_UTF8(z, c);
      }
    }
    pMem->n = z - zOut;
  }
  *z = 0;
  assert( (pMem->n+(desiredEnc==SQLITE_UTF8?1:2))<=len );

  sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(pMem);
  pMem->flags &= ~(MEM_Static|MEM_Dyn|MEM_Ephem|MEM_Short);
  pMem->enc = desiredEnc;
  if( zOut==zShort ){
    memcpy(pMem->zShort, zOut, len);
    zOut = (u8*)pMem->zShort;
    pMem->flags |= (MEM_Term|MEM_Short);
  }else{
    pMem->flags |= (MEM_Term|MEM_Dyn);
  }
  pMem->z = (char*)zOut;

translate_out:
#if defined(TRANSLATE_TRACE) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
  {
    char zBuf[100];
    sqlite3VdbeMemPrettyPrint(pMem, zBuf);
    fprintf(stderr, "OUTPUT: %s\n", zBuf);
  }
#endif
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

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double sqlite3VdbeRealValue ( Mem )

Definition at line 294 of file vdbemem.c.

                                      {
  if( pMem->flags & MEM_Real ){
    return pMem->r;
  }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Int ){
    return (double)pMem->i;
  }else if( pMem->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob) ){
    double val = 0.0;
    if( sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pMem, SQLITE_UTF8)
       || sqlite3VdbeMemNulTerminate(pMem) ){
      return 0.0;
    }
    assert( pMem->z );
    sqlite3AtoF(pMem->z, &val);
    return val;
  }else{
    return 0.0;
  }
}

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int sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare ( void ,
int  ,
const void ,
int  ,
const void  
)

Definition at line 1782 of file vdbeaux.c.

 {
  KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = (KeyInfo*)userData;
  u32 d1, d2;          /* Offset into aKey[] of next data element */
  u32 idx1, idx2;      /* Offset into aKey[] of next header element */
  u32 szHdr1, szHdr2;  /* Number of bytes in header */
  int i = 0;
  int nField;
  int rc = 0;
  const unsigned char *aKey1 = (const unsigned char *)pKey1;
  const unsigned char *aKey2 = (const unsigned char *)pKey2;

  Mem mem1;
  Mem mem2;
  mem1.enc = pKeyInfo->enc;
  mem2.enc = pKeyInfo->enc;
  
  idx1 = GetVarint(aKey1, szHdr1);
  d1 = szHdr1;
  idx2 = GetVarint(aKey2, szHdr2);
  d2 = szHdr2;
  nField = pKeyInfo->nField;
  while( idx1<szHdr1 && idx2<szHdr2 ){
    u32 serial_type1;
    u32 serial_type2;

    /* Read the serial types for the next element in each key. */
    idx1 += GetVarint( aKey1+idx1, serial_type1 );
    if( d1>=nKey1 && sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(serial_type1)>0 ) break;
    idx2 += GetVarint( aKey2+idx2, serial_type2 );
    if( d2>=nKey2 && sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(serial_type2)>0 ) break;

    /* Assert that there is enough space left in each key for the blob of
    ** data to go with the serial type just read. This assert may fail if
    ** the file is corrupted.  Then read the value from each key into mem1
    ** and mem2 respectively.
    */
    d1 += sqlite3VdbeSerialGet(&aKey1[d1], serial_type1, &mem1);
    d2 += sqlite3VdbeSerialGet(&aKey2[d2], serial_type2, &mem2);

    rc = sqlite3MemCompare(&mem1, &mem2, i<nField ? pKeyInfo->aColl[i] : 0);
    if( mem1.flags & MEM_Dyn ) sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(&mem1);
    if( mem2.flags & MEM_Dyn ) sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(&mem2);
    if( rc!=0 ){
      break;
    }
    i++;
  }

  /* One of the keys ran out of fields, but all the fields up to that point
  ** were equal. If the incrKey flag is true, then the second key is
  ** treated as larger.
  */
  if( rc==0 ){
    if( pKeyInfo->incrKey ){
      rc = -1;
    }else if( d1<nKey1 ){
      rc = 1;
    }else if( d2<nKey2 ){
      rc = -1;
    }
  }else if( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder && i<pKeyInfo->nField
               && pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[i] ){
    rc = -rc;
  }

  return rc;
}

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int sqlite3VdbeSerialGet ( const unsigned char *  ,
u32  ,
Mem  
)

Definition at line 1672 of file vdbeaux.c.

 {
  switch( serial_type ){
    case 10:   /* Reserved for future use */
    case 11:   /* Reserved for future use */
    case 0: {  /* NULL */
      pMem->flags = MEM_Null;
      break;
    }
    case 1: { /* 1-byte signed integer */
      pMem->i = (signed char)buf[0];
      pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
      return 1;
    }
    case 2: { /* 2-byte signed integer */
      pMem->i = (((signed char)buf[0])<<8) | buf[1];
      pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
      return 2;
    }
    case 3: { /* 3-byte signed integer */
      pMem->i = (((signed char)buf[0])<<16) | (buf[1]<<8) | buf[2];
      pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
      return 3;
    }
    case 4: { /* 4-byte signed integer */
      pMem->i = (buf[0]<<24) | (buf[1]<<16) | (buf[2]<<8) | buf[3];
      pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
      return 4;
    }
    case 5: { /* 6-byte signed integer */
      u64 x = (((signed char)buf[0])<<8) | buf[1];
      u32 y = (buf[2]<<24) | (buf[3]<<16) | (buf[4]<<8) | buf[5];
      x = (x<<32) | y;
      pMem->i = *(i64*)&x;
      pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
      return 6;
    }
    case 6:   /* 8-byte signed integer */
    case 7: { /* IEEE floating point */
      u64 x;
      u32 y;
#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT)
      /* Verify that integers and floating point values use the same
      ** byte order.  The byte order differs on some (broken) architectures.
      */
      static const u64 t1 = ((u64)0x3ff00000)<<32;
      assert( 1.0==*(double*)&t1 );
#endif

      x = (buf[0]<<24) | (buf[1]<<16) | (buf[2]<<8) | buf[3];
      y = (buf[4]<<24) | (buf[5]<<16) | (buf[6]<<8) | buf[7];
      x = (x<<32) | y;
      if( serial_type==6 ){
        pMem->i = *(i64*)&x;
        pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
      }else{
        pMem->r = *(double*)&x;
        pMem->flags = MEM_Real;
      }
      return 8;
    }
    case 8:    /* Integer 0 */
    case 9: {  /* Integer 1 */
      pMem->i = serial_type-8;
      pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
      return 0;
    }
    default: {
      int len = (serial_type-12)/2;
      pMem->z = (char *)buf;
      pMem->n = len;
      pMem->xDel = 0;
      if( serial_type&0x01 ){
        pMem->flags = MEM_Str | MEM_Ephem;
      }else{
        pMem->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Ephem;
      }
      return len;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

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int sqlite3VdbeSerialPut ( unsigned char *  ,
Mem ,
int   
)

Definition at line 1636 of file vdbeaux.c.

                                                                        {
  u32 serial_type = sqlite3VdbeSerialType(pMem, file_format);
  int len;

  /* Integer and Real */
  if( serial_type<=7 && serial_type>0 ){
    u64 v;
    int i;
    if( serial_type==7 ){
      v = *(u64*)&pMem->r;
    }else{
      v = *(u64*)&pMem->i;
    }
    len = i = sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(serial_type);
    while( i-- ){
      buf[i] = (v&0xFF);
      v >>= 8;
    }
    return len;
  }

  /* String or blob */
  if( serial_type>=12 ){
    len = sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(serial_type);
    memcpy(buf, pMem->z, len);
    return len;
  }

  /* NULL or constants 0 or 1 */
  return 0;
}

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u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialType ( Mem ,
int   
)

Definition at line 1583 of file vdbeaux.c.

                                                     {
  int flags = pMem->flags;

  if( flags&MEM_Null ){
    return 0;
  }
  if( flags&MEM_Int ){
    /* Figure out whether to use 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 bytes. */
#   define MAX_6BYTE ((((i64)0x00001000)<<32)-1)
    i64 i = pMem->i;
    u64 u;
    if( file_format>=4 && (i&1)==i ){
      return 8+i;
    }
    u = i<0 ? -i : i;
    if( u<=127 ) return 1;
    if( u<=32767 ) return 2;
    if( u<=8388607 ) return 3;
    if( u<=2147483647 ) return 4;
    if( u<=MAX_6BYTE ) return 5;
    return 6;
  }
  if( flags&MEM_Real ){
    return 7;
  }
  if( flags&MEM_Str ){
    int n = pMem->n;
    assert( n>=0 );
    return ((n*2) + 13);
  }
  if( flags&MEM_Blob ){
    return (pMem->n*2 + 12);
  }
  return 0;
}

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Definition at line 1622 of file vdbeaux.c.

                                             {
  if( serial_type>=12 ){
    return (serial_type-12)/2;
  }else{
    static const u8 aSize[] = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
    return aSize[serial_type];
  }
}

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void sqliteVdbePopStack ( Vdbe ,
int   
)

Variable Documentation

Definition at line 4 of file opcodes.c.